Luke Chapter 2

J.C. Ryle, 1858

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Section 11. The Birth of Christ at Bethlehem, Luke 2:1-7

And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed. (And this taxing was first made when Quirinius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.

We have, in these verses, the story of a birth — the birth of the incarnate Son of God, the Lord Jesus Christ. Every birth of a living child is a marvelous event. It brings into being a soul that will never die. But never since the world began, was a birth so marvelous as the birth of Christ. In itself it was a miracle — "God was manifest in the flesh!" The blessings it brought into the world were unspeakable — it opened to man the door of everlasting life!

In reading these verses, let us first notice — the TIMES when Christ was born. It was in the days when Augustus, the first Roman emperor, made "a decree that all the world should be taxed."

The wisdom of God appears in this simple fact. The scepter was practically departing from Judah. (Genesis 49:10.) The Jews were coming under the dominion and taxation of a foreign power. Strangers were beginning to rule over them. They no longer had a really independent government of their own. The "due time" had come for the promised Messiah to appear. Augustus taxes "the world" — and at once Christ is born.

It was a time peculiarly suitable for the introduction of Christ's Gospel. The whole civilized earth was at length governed by one master. There was nothing to prevent the preacher of a new faith going from city to city, and country to country. The princes and priests of the heathen world had been weighed in the balances, and found lacking. Egypt, and Assyria, and Babylon, and Persia, and Greece, and Rome — had all successively proved that "the world by wisdom knew not God." (1 Corinthians 1:21.) Notwithstanding their mighty conquerors, and poets, and historians, and architects, and philosophers — the kingdoms of the world were full of dark idolatry. It was indeed "due time" for God to interpose from Heaven, and send down an almighty Savior! It was "due time" for Christ to be born.

Let us ever rest our souls on the thought, that times are in God's hand. (Psalm 31:15.) He knows the best season for sending help to His church, and new light to the world. Let us beware of giving way to over-anxiety about the course of events around us — as if we knew better than the King of kings, what time relief should come.

"Cease, Philip, to try to govern the world," was a frequent saying of Luther to an anxious friend. It was a saying full of wisdom.


Let us notice, secondly — the PLACE where Christ was born. It was not at Nazareth of Galilee, where His mother Mary lived. The prophet Micah had foretold that the event was to take place at Bethlehem. (Micah 5:2.) And so it came to pass. At Bethlehem, Christ was born.

The overruling providence of God appears in this simple fact. He orders all things in Heaven and earth. He turns the hearts of kings wherever He will. He overruled the time when Augustus decreed the taxing. He directed the enforcement of the decree in such a way, that Mary must needs be at Bethlehem when the time came for the baby to be born. Little did the haughty Roman emperor, and his officer Quirinius, think that they were only instruments in the hand of the God, and were only carrying out the eternal purposes of the King of kings! Little did they think that they were helping to lay the foundation of a kingdom, before which the empires of this world would all go down one day, and Roman idolatry pass away. The words of Isaiah, upon a like occasion, should be remembered, "But this is not what he intends — this is not what he has in mind." (Isaiah 10:7.)

The heart of a believer should take comfort in the recollection of God's providential government of the world. A true Christian should never be greatly moved or disturbed by the conduct of the rulers of the earth. He should see with the eye of faith — a divine hand overruling all that they do, to the praise and glory of God. He should regard every king and potentate — an Augustus, a Quirinius, a Darius, a Cyrus, a Sennacherib — as a creature who, with all his power — can do nothing but what God allows, nor anything which is not carrying out God's will. And when the rulers of this world "set themselves against the Lord" — the believer should take comfort in the words of Solomon, "There is one higher than they!" (Ecclesiastes 5:8.)


Let us notice, lastly — the MANNER in which Christ was born. He was not born under the roof of His mother's house — but in a strange place, and at an "inn." When born, He was not laid in a carefully prepared cradle. He was "laid in a manger (that is, a feeding trough for the cattle), because there was no room in the inn."

We see here, the grace and condescension of Christ. Had He come to save mankind with royal majesty, surrounded by His Father's angels — it would have been an act of undeserved mercy. Had He chosen to dwell in a palace, with power and great authority — then we should have had reason enough to wonder. But to become as poor as the very poorest of mankind, and lowly as the very lowliest — this is a love which surpasses knowledge! It is unspeakable and unsearchable!

Never let us forget that through his humiliation, Jesus has purchased a title to glory for us. Through His life of suffering, as well as His death — He has obtained eternal redemption for us. All through His life He was poor for our sakes — from the hour of His birth to the hour of His death. And through His poverty, we are made rich. "For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor — so that you through his poverty might become rich!" (2 Corinthians 8:9.)

Let us beware of despising the poor, because of their poverty. Their condition is one which the Son of God has sanctified and honored, by taking it voluntarily on Himself. God is no respecter of people. He looks at the hearts of men — and not at their incomes. Let us never be ashamed of the affliction of poverty — if God thinks it fit to lay it upon us. To be godless and covetous is disgraceful — but it is no disgrace to be poor. A lowly dwelling place, and coarse food, and a hard bed — are not pleasing to flesh and blood. But they are the portion which the Lord Jesus Himself willingly accepted from the day of His entrance into the world.

Wealth ruins far more souls than poverty! When the love of money begins to creep over us — then let us think of the manger at Bethlehem, and of Him who was laid in it. Such thoughts may deliver us from much harm.


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Section 12. The Shepherds and the Angels, Luke 2:8-20

And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; You shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into Heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord has made known unto us. And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child. And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.

We read, in these verses — how the birth of the Lord Jesus was first announced to mankind. The birth of a king's son is generally made an occasion of public reveling and rejoicing. But the announcement of the birth of the Prince of Peace was made privately, at midnight, and without anything of worldly pomp and ostentation.

Let us mark WHO they were, to whom the tidings first came that Christ was born. They were shepherds abiding in the field near Bethlehem, keeping watch over their flocks by night. To shepherds — not to priests and rulers; to shepherds — not to Scribes and Pharisees, an angel appeared, proclaiming, "unto you is born this day a Savior, who is Christ the Lord."

The saying of James should come into our mind, as we read these words, "Has not God chosen the poor of this world, to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom, which he has promised to those who love him." (James 2:5.) The lack of money debars no one from spiritual privileges. The things of God's kingdom are often hidden from the great and noble, and revealed to the poor. The busy labor of the hands need not prevent a man being favored with special communion with God. Moses was keeping sheep, Gideon was threshing wheat, Elisha was ploughing, when they were each honored by direct calls and revelations from God. Let us resist the suggestion of Satan, that religion is not for the working man. The weak of the world, are often called before the mighty. The last are often first — and the first last.


Let us mark, secondly — the LANGUAGE used by the angel in announcing Christ's birth to the shepherds. He said, "I bring unto you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people."

We need not wonder at these words. The spiritual darkness which had covered the earth for four thousand years, was about to be rolled away. The way to pardon and peace with God, was about to be thrown open to all mankind. The head of Satan, was about to be crushed. Liberty was about to be proclaimed to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind. The mighty truth was about to be proclaimed — that God could be just, and yet, for Christ's sake, justify the ungodly. Salvation was no longer to be seen through types and figures — but openly, and face to face. The knowledge of God was no longer to be confined to the Jews — but to be offered to the whole Gentile world. The days of heathenism were numbered. The first stone of God's kingdom was about to be set up. If this was not "good tidings" — then there never were tidings that deserved the name.


Let us mark, thirdly — who they were that first praised God, when Christ was born. They were ANGELS, and not men — angels who had never sinned, and needed no Savior — angels who had not fallen, and required no redeemer, and no atoning blood. The first hymn to the honor of "God manifest in the flesh," was sung by "a multitude of the heavenly host."

Let us note this fact. It is full of deep spiritual lessons. It shows us what good servants the angels are. All that their heavenly Master does, pleases and interests them. It shows us what clear knowledge they have. They know what misery sin has brought into creation. They know the blessedness of Heaven, and the privilege of an open door into it. Above all, it shows us the deep love and compassion which the angels feel towards poor lost man. They rejoice in the glorious prospect of many souls being saved, and many brands plucked from the burning.

Let us strive to be more like-minded with the angels. Our spiritual ignorance and deadness appear most painfully in our inability to enter into the joy which we see them here expressing. Surely if we hope to dwell with them forever in Heaven — then we ought to share something of their feelings while we are here upon earth. Let us seek a more deep sense of the sinfulness and misery of sin — and then we shall have a more deep sense of thankfulness for redemption.


Let us mark, fourthly — the hymn of praise which the heavenly host sang in the hearing of the shepherds. They said, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will towards men."

These famous words are variously interpreted. Man is by nature so dull in spiritual things, that it seems as if he cannot understand a sentence of heavenly language when he hears it. Yet a meaning may be drawn from the words which is free from any objection, and is not only good sense, but excellent theology. "Glory to God in the highest!" the song begins. Now the highest degree of glory to God has come — by the appearing of His Son Jesus Christ in the world. He by His life and death on the cross will glorify God's attributes — justice, holiness, mercy, and wisdom — as they never were glorified before. Creation glorified God — but not so much as redemption.

"Peace on earth!" the song goes on. Now the peace of God which surpasses all understanding has come to earth — the perfect peace between a holy God and sinful man, which Christ was to purchase with His own blood — the peace which is offered freely to all mankind — the peace which, once admitted into the heart, makes men live at peace one with another, and will one day overspread the whole world.

"Good will towards men!" the song concludes. Now the time has come when God's kindness and good will towards guilty man is to be fully made known. His power was seen in creation. His justice was seen in the flood. But His mercy remained to be fully revealed by the appearing and atonement of Jesus Christ!

Such was the message of the angels' song. Happy are those who can enter into its meaning — and with their hearts subscribe to its contents. The man who hopes to dwell in Heaven — should have some experimental acquaintance with the language of its inhabitants.


Let us mark, before we leave the passage--the prompt obedience to the heavenly vision displayed by the shepherds. We see in them no doubts, or questionings, or hesitation. Strange and improbable as the tidings might seem — they at once act upon them. They went to Bethlehem in haste. They found everything exactly as it had been told to them. Their simple faith received a rich reward. They had the mighty privilege of being the first of all mankind, after Mary and Joseph — who saw the new-born Messiah with believing eyes! They soon returned, "glorifying and praising God" for what they had seen.

May our spirit be like theirs! May we ever believe implicitly, act promptly, and wait for nothing — when the path of duty is clear! So doing, we shall have a reward like that of the shepherds. The journey that is begun in faith — will generally end in praise.


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Section 13. Christ's Presentation in the Temple, Luke 2:21-24

And at the end of eight days, when he was circumcised, he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. And when the time came for their purification according to the Law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord (as it is written in the Law of the Lord, "Every male who first opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord") and to offer a sacrifice according to what is said in the Law of the Lord, "a pair of Turtle-doves, or two young pigeons."

The first point which demands our attention in this passage--is the obedience which our Lord rendered, as an infant, to the Jewish law. We read of His being circumcised on the eighth day. It is the earliest fact which is recorded in His history.

It is a mere waste of time to speculate, as some have done, about the reason why our Lord submitted to circumcision. We know that "in Him was no sin," either original or actual. (1 John 3:5.) His being circumcised was not meant in the least as an acknowledgment that there was any tendency to corruption in His heart. It was not a confession of inclination to evil — or need of grace to mortify the deeds of His body. All this should be carefully borne in mind.

Let it suffice us to remember that our Lord's circumcision was a public testimony to Israel, that according to the flesh He was a Jew, made of a Jewish woman, and "made under the law." (Galatians 4:4.) Without it He would not have fulfilled the law's requirements. Without it He could not have been recognized as the son of David, and the seed of Abraham.

Let us remember, furthermore, that circumcision was absolutely necessary before our Lord could be heard as a teacher in Israel. Without it, he would have had no place in any lawful Jewish assembly, and no right to any Jewish ordinance. Without it, He would have been regarded by all Jews as nothing better than an uncircumcised Gentile, and an apostate from the faith of the fathers.

Let our Lord's submission to an ordinance which He did not need for Himself, be a lesson to us in our daily life. Let us endure much, rather than increase the offence of the Gospel, or hinder in any way the cause of God. The words of Paul deserve frequent pondering, "Though I am free from all men — yet have I made myself servant unto all, that I might gain the more. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews — to those who are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those who are under the law." "I have become all things to all men, that I might by all means save some." (1 Corinthians 9:19-22.) The man who wrote these words, walked very closely in the footsteps of His crucified Master.


The second point which demands our attention in this passage, is the NAME by which our Lord was called, by God's special command. "Eight days later, when the baby was circumcised, he was named JESUS, the name given him by the angel even before he was conceived." The word Jesus simply means "Savior." It is the same word as "Joshua" in the Old Testament. The selection of this name is very striking and instructive. The Son of God came down from Heaven to be not only the Savior — but the King, the Law-giver, the Prophet, the Priest, the Judge of fallen man. Had He chosen any one of these titles, He would only have chosen that which was His own. But He passed by them all. He selects a name which speaks of mercy, grace, help, and deliverance for a lost world. It is as a Deliverer and Redeemer that He desires principally to be known.

Let us often ask ourselves, what our own hearts know of the Son of God. Is He our Jesus — our Savior? This is the question on which our salvation turns. Let it not content us to know Christ as One who wrought mighty miracles, and spoke as never man spoke; or to know Him as One who is fully God, and will one day judge the world. Let us see that we know Him experimentally — as our Deliverer from the guilt and power of sin, and our Redeemer from Satan's bondage. Let us strive to be able to say, "This is my Friend! I was dead — and He gave me life! I was a prisoner — and He set me free."

Precious indeed is this name of Jesus to all true believers! It is "as ointment poured forth." (Song of Solomon 1:3.) The name of Jesus restores them when conscience-troubled. It comforts them when cast down. It smoothes their pillows in sickness. It supports them in the hour of death. "The name of the Lord is a strong tower; the righteous runs into it, and is safe." (Proverbs 18:10.)


The last point which demands our attention in this passage — is the poor and humble condition of our Lord's mother, the Virgin Mary. This is a fact which, at first sight, may not stand out clearly in these verses. But a reference to the twelfth chapter of Leviticus will at once make it plain. There we shall see, that the offering which Mary made was specially appointed to be made by poor people — "If she is not able to bring a lamb, then she shall bring two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons." In short, her offering was a public declaration that she was poor. (Leviticus 12:6.)

Poverty, it is manifest, was our Lord's portion upon earth, from the days of His earliest infancy. He was nursed and tended as a babe — by a poor woman. He passed the first thirty years of His life on earth — under the roof of a poor man. We need not doubt that He ate a poor man's food, and wore a poor man's apparel, and worked a poor man's work, and shared in all a poor man's troubles. Such condescension is truly marvelous. Such an example of humility surpasses man's understanding.

Facts like these ought often to be laid to heart by poor people. They would help to silence murmuring and complaining, and go far to reconcile them to their hard lot. The simple fact that Jesus was born of a poor woman, and lived all his life on earth among poor people — ought to silence the common argument that "religion is not for the poor."

Above all it ought to encourage every poor believer in all his approaches to the throne of grace in prayer. Let him remember in all his prayers, that his mighty Mediator in Heaven is accustomed to poverty, and knows by experience the heart of a poor man. Well would it be for the world if working men could only see that Christ is the true poor man's friend!


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Section 14. Simeon, His History, Praise, and prophecy, Luke 2:25-35

Now there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon, and this man was righteous and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. And he came in the Spirit into the temple, and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him according to the custom of the Law, he took him up in his arms and blessed God and said, "Lord, now you are letting your servant depart in peace, according to your word; for my eyes have seen your salvation that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples, a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to your people Israel." And his father and his mother marveled at what was said about him. And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, "Behold, this child is appointed for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is opposed (and a sword will pierce through your own soul also), so that thoughts from many hearts may be revealed."

We have in these verses, the history of one whose name is nowhere else mentioned in the New Testament — "a just and devout man" named Simeon. We know nothing of his life before or after the time when Christ was born. We are only told that he came by the Spirit into the temple, when the child Jesus was brought there by His mother; and that he "took him up in his arms and blessed God" in words which are now well-known all over the world.

We see, in the case of Simeon — how God has a believing people even in the worst of places, and in the darkest times. Religion was at a very low ebb in Israel when Christ was born. The Old testament teachings were spoiled by the doctrines of Pharisees and Sadducees. The fine gold had become deplorably dim. Yet even then we find in the midst of Jerusalem a man "just and devout" — a man "upon whom is the Holy Spirit."

It is a cheering thought, that God never leaves Himself entirely without a witness. As small as His believing church may sometimes be — the gates of Hell shall never completely prevail against it. The true church may be driven into the wilderness, and be a scattered little flock — but it never dies. There was a Lot in Sodom, and an Obadiah in Ahab's household, and a Daniel in Babylon, and a Jeremiah in Zedekiah's court. And in the last days of the Jewish Church, when its iniquity was almost full — there were godly people like Simeon, even in Jerusalem.

True Christians, in every age, should remember this and take comfort. It is a truth which they are apt to forget, and in consequence to give way to despondency. "I alone am left," said Elijah, "and they seek my life to take it away!" But what was the answer of God to him, "I have yet reserved seven thousand in Israel." (1 Kings 19:14, 18.) Let us learn to be more hopeful. Let us believe that grace can live and flourish — even in the most unfavorable circumstances. There are more Simeons in the world than we suppose!


We see in the song of Simeon — how completely a believer can be delivered from the fear of death. "Lord," says old Simeon, "now let your servant depart in peace." He speaks like one for whom the grave has lost its terrors — and the world its charms. He desires to be released from the miseries of this pilgrim-state of existence — and to be allowed to go home. He is willing to be "absent from the body — and present with the Lord." He speaks as one who knows where he is going when he departs from this life, and cares not how soon he goes. The change with him will be a change for the better — and he desires that his change may come soon.

What is it which can enable a mortal man to use such language as this? What can deliver us from that "fear of death" to which so many are in bondage? What can take the sting of death away? There is but one answer to such questions. Nothing but strong faith can do it. Faith laying firm hold on an unseen Savior — faith resting on the promises of an unseen God. Faith, and faith alone, can enable a man to look death in the face, and say, "Now let your servant depart in peace."

It is not enough to be weary of pain, and sickness, and ready to submit to anything for the sake of a 'hopeful change'. It is not enough to feel indifferent to the world, when we have no more strength to mingle in its business, or enjoy its pleasures. We must have something more than this, if we desire to depart in real peace. We must have faith like old Simeon's — even that faith which is the gift of God. Without such faith, we may die quietly, and there may seem to be "no struggles in our death." (Psalm 73:4.) But, dying without such faith — we shall never find ourselves in Heaven, when we wake up in another world.


We see, furthermore, in the song of Simeon — what clear views of Christ's work and office some Jewish believers attained, even before the Gospel was preached. We find this good old man speaking of Jesus as "the salvation which God had prepared" — as "a light to enlighten the Gentiles, and the glory of his people Israel." Well would it have been for the letter-learned Scribes and Pharisees of Simeon's time — if they had sat at his feet, and listened to his word.

Christ was indeed "a light to enlighten the Gentiles." Without Him they were sunk in gross darkness and superstition. They knew not the way of life. They worshiped the works of their own hands. Their wisest philosophers were utterly ignorant in spiritual things. "Professing themselves to be wise — they became fools!" (Romans 1:22.) The Gospel of Christ was like sun-rise to Greece and Rome, and the whole heathen world. The light which it let in on men's minds on the subject of religion, was as great as the change from night to day!

Christ was indeed "the glory of Israel." To be a descendant of Abraham; to have the covenants — the promises — the law of Moses — the divinely ordered Temple service — all these were mighty privileges. But all were as nothing, compared to the mighty fact, that out of Israel was born the Savior of the world. This was to be the highest honor of the Jewish nation — that the mother of Christ was a Jewish woman, and that the blood of One "made of the seed of David, according to the flesh," was to make atonement for the sin of mankind. (Romans 1:3.)

The words of old Simeon, let us remember — will yet receive a fuller accomplishment. The "light" which he saw by faith, as he held the child Jesus in his arms — shall yet shine so brightly that all the nations of the Gentile world shall see it. The "glory" of that Jesus whom Israel crucified — shall one day be revealed so clearly to the scattered Jews, that they shall look on Him whom they pierced, and repent, and be converted. The day shall come when the veil shall be taken from the heart of Israel, and all shall "glory in the Lord." (Isaiah 45:25.) For that day let us wait, and watch, and pray. If Christ is the light and glory of our souls — then that day cannot come too soon.


We see, lastly, in this passage — a striking account of the RESULTS which would follow when Jesus Christ and His Gospel came into the world. Every word of old Simeon on this subject deserves private meditation. The whole forms a prophecy which is being daily fulfilled.

Christ was to be "a sign spoken against." He was to be a mark for all the fiery darts of the wicked one. He was to be "despised and rejected by men." He and His people were to be a "city set upon a hill" — assailed on every side, and hated by all sorts of enemies.

And so it proved. Men who agreed in nothing else — have agreed in hating Christ. From the very first, thousands of unbelievers have been persecutors of believers. Christ was to be the occasion of "the fall of many in Israel." He was to be a stone of stumbling and rock of offence to many proud and self-righteous Jews — who would reject Him and perish in their sins. And so it proved. To multitudes among them — Christ crucified was a stumbling-block, and His Gospel "a savor of death." (1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Corinthians 2:16.)

Christ was to be the occasion of "rising again to many in Israel." He was to prove the Savior of many who, at one time, rejected, blasphemed, and reviled Him — but afterwards repented and believed.

And so it proved. When the thousands who crucified Him repented, and Saul who persecuted Him was converted — this was nothing less than a rising again.

Christ was to be the occasion of "the thoughts of many hearts being revealed." His Gospel was to bring to light, the real characters of many people. The enmity to God of some, and the inward weariness and hunger of others — would be revealed by the preaching of the cross. It would show what men really were. And so it proved. The Acts of the Apostles, in almost every chapter — bear testimony that in this, as in every other item of his prophecy, old Simeon spoke truth.

And now what do we think of Christ? This is the question which ought to occupy our minds. What thoughts does He call forth in our hearts? This is the inquiry which ought to receive our attention. Are we for Him — or are we against Him? Do we love Him — or do we neglect Him? Do we stumble at His doctrine — or do we find it as life from the dead? Let us never rest until these questions are satisfactorily answered.


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Section 15. Anna the prophetess, and her history, Luke 2:36-40

And there was a prophetess, Anna, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was advanced in years, having lived with her husband seven years from when she was a virgin, and then as a widow until she was eighty-four. She did not depart from the temple, worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day. And coming up at that very hour she began to give thanks to God and to speak of him to all who were waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem. And when they had performed everything according to the Law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own town of Nazareth. And the child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom. And the favor of God was upon him.

The verses we have now read, introduce us to a servant of God whose name is nowhere else mentioned in the New Testament. The history of Anna, like that of Simeon — is related only by Luke. The wisdom of God ordained that a woman as well as a man — should testify to the fact that Messiah was born. In the mouth of two witnesses it was established that Malachi's prophecy was fulfilled — that the messenger of the covenant would suddenly come to the Temple. (Malachi 3:1.)

Let us observe, in these verses — the character of a holy woman, before the establishment of Christ's Gospel. The facts recorded about Anna are few and simple. But we shall find them full of instruction.

Anna was a woman of irreproachable character. After a married life of only seven years' duration — she had spent eighty-four years alone as a widow. The trials, desolation, and temptation of such a condition — were probably very great. But Anna by grace overcame them all. She answered to the description given by Paul. She was "a widow indeed." (1 Timothy 5:5.)

Anna was a woman who loved God's house. "She departed not from the temple." She regarded it as the place where God especially dwelt, and toward which every pious Jew in foreign lands, like Daniel, loved to direct his prayers. "Nearer to God — nearer to God!" was the desire of her heart, and she felt that she was never so near, as within the walls which contained the ark, the altar, and the holy of holies. She could enter into David's words, "My soul longs, yes, even faints for the courts of the Lord!" (Psalm 84:2.)

Anna was a woman of great self-denial. She "served God with fastings night and day." She was continually crucifying the flesh and keeping it in subjection by voluntary self-denial. Being fully persuaded in her own mind that the practice was helpful to her soul — she spared no pains to keep it up.

Anna was a woman of much prayer. She "served God with prayer night and day." She was continually communing with him, as her best Friend — about the things that concerned her own peace. She was never weary of pleading with Him on behalf of others — and, above all, for the fulfillment of His promises concerning the Messiah.

Anna was a woman who held communion with other saints. As soon as she had seen Jesus, she "spoke of Him" to others whom she knew in Jerusalem, and with whom she was evidently on friendly terms. There was a bond of union between her and all who enjoyed the same hope. They were servants of the same Master — and travelers to the same home.

And Anna received a rich reward for all her diligence in God's service, before she left the world. She was allowed to see Him who had been so long promised, and for whose coming she had so often prayed. Her faith was at last changed to sight — and her hope to certainty! The joy of this holy woman must indeed have been "unspeakable and full of glory." (1 Peter 1:8.)

It would be well for all Christian women to ponder the character of Anna, and learn wisdom from it. The times, no doubt, are greatly changed. The social duties of the Christian are very different from those of the Jewish believer at Jerusalem. All are not placed by God in the condition of widows. But still, after every deduction — there remains much in Anna's history which is worthy of imitation. When we read of her consistency, and holiness, and prayerfulness, and self-denial — we cannot but wish that many daughters of the Christian Church would strive to be like her!


Let us observe, secondly, in these verses — the description given of saints in Jerusalem in the time when Jesus was born. They were people "who looked for redemption."

Faith, we shall always find — is the universal character of God's elect. These men and women here described, dwelling in the midst of a wicked city — walked by faith, and not by sight. They were not carried away by the flood of worldliness, formality, and self-righteousness around them. They were not infected by the carnal expectations of a mere worldly Messiah, in which most Jews indulged. They lived in the faith of patriarchs and prophets — that the coming Redeemer would bring in holiness and righteousness, and that His principal victory would be over sin and the devil! For such a Redeemer — they waited patiently. For such a victory — they earnestly longed.

Let us learn a lesson from these godly people. If they, with so few helps and so many discouragements, lived such a life of faith — then how much more ought we with a finished Bible and a full Gospel — to live by faith. Let us strive, like them, to walk by faith and look forward.

The second advent of Christ is yet to come. The complete "redemption" of this earth from sin, and Satan, and the curse — is yet to take place. Let us declare plainly by our lives and conduct, that we look and long for this second coming. We may be sure that the highest style of Christianity even now, is to "wait for redemption," and to love the Lord's appearing. (Romans 8:23; 2 Timothy 4:8.)


Let us observe, lastly, in these verses — what clear proof we have that the Lord Jesus was really and truly man, as well as God. We read, that when Mary and Joseph returned to their own city Nazareth, "the child GREW and became strong."

There is, doubtless, much that is deeply mysterious in the Person of the Lord Jesus. How the same Person could be at once perfect God and perfect man — is a point that necessarily surpasses our understanding. In what manner and measure, and in what proportion at the early part of His life — that divine knowledge which He doubtless possessed, was exercised — we cannot possibly explain. It is a lofty truth. We cannot attain unto it.

One thing, however, is perfectly clear, and we shall do well to lay firm hold upon it. Our Lord partook of everything that belongs to man's nature — sin only excepted. As man, He was born an infant. As man, He grew from infancy to boyhood. As man, He yearly increased in bodily strength and mental power, during His passage from boyhood to full age. Of all the sinless conditions of man's body, its first feebleness, its after growth, its regular progress to maturity — He was in the fullest sense a partaker. We must rest satisfied with knowing this. To pry beyond, is useless. To know this clearly, is of much importance. An absence of settled knowledge of it, has led to many wild heresies.

One comfortable practical lesson stands out on the face of this truth, which ought never to be overlooked. Our Lord is able to sympathize with man in every stage of man's existence, from the cradle to the grave. He knows by experience the nature and temperament of — the child, the boy, and the young man. He has stood in their place. He has occupied their position. He knows their hearts.

Let us never forget this, in dealing with young people about their souls. Let us tell them confidently, that there is One in Heaven at the right hand of God, who is exactly suited to be their Friend. He who died on the cross — was once a boy Himself, and feels a special interest in boys and girls, as well as in grown up people.

Listen to AUDIO

Section 16. Jesus and His Parents at the Passover, Luke 2:41-52

Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of the Passover. And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to custom. And when the feast was ended, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. His parents did not know it, but supposing him to be in the group they went a day’s journey, but then they began to search for him among their relatives and acquaintances, and when they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem, searching for him. After three days they found him in the temple, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions. And all who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. And when his parents saw him, they were astonished. And his mother said to him, "Son, why have you treated us so? Behold, your father and I have been searching for you in great distress." And he said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?" And they did not understand the saying that he spoke to them. And he went down with them and came to Nazareth and was submissive to them. And his mother treasured up all these things in her heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature and in favor with God and man.

These verses should always be deeply interesting to a reader of the Bible. They record the only facts which we know about our Lord Jesus Christ during the first thirty years of His life on earth, after His infancy. How many things a Christian would like to know about the events of those thirty years, and the daily history of the house at Nazareth! But we need not doubt that there is wisdom in the silence of Scripture on the subject. If it had been good for us to know more — then more would have been revealed.

Let us first, draw from the passage — a lesson for all married people. We have it in the conduct of Joseph and Mary, here described. We are told that "they went to Jerusalem every year, at the feast of the Passover." They regularly honored God's appointed ordinances — and they honored them together. The distance from Nazareth to Jerusalem was great. The journey, to poor people without any means of conveyance — was, doubtless, troublesome and fatiguing. To leave house and home for some two weeks, was no slight expense. But God had given Israel a command, and Joseph and Mary strictly obeyed it. God had appointed an ordinance for their spiritual good — and they regularly kept it. And all that they did concerning the Passover — they did together. When they went up to the feast, they always went up side by side.

So ought it to be with all Christian husbands and wives. They ought to help one another in spiritual things, and to encourage one another in the service of God. Marriage, unquestionably, is not a sacrament, as the Romish Church vainly asserts. But marriage is a state of life which has the greatest effect on the souls of those who enter into it. It helps them upwards or downwards. It leads them nearer to Heaven — or nearer to Hell.

We all depend much on the company we keep. Our characters are insensibly molded by those with whom we pass our time. To none does this apply so much as to married people. Husbands and wives are continually doing either good or harm to one another's souls.

Let all who are married, or think of getting married — ponder these things well. Let them take their example from the conduct of Joseph and Mary, and resolve to do likewise. Let them pray together, and read the Bible together, and go to the house of God together, and talk to one another about spiritual matters.

Above all, let them beware of throwing obstacles and discouragements in one another's way, about means of grace. Blessed are those husbands who say to their wives as Elkanah did to Hannah, "Do all that is in your heart." Happy are those wives who say to their husbands as Leah and Rachel did to Jacob, "Whatever God has said unto you — do it." (1 Samuel 1:23; Genesis 31:16.)


Let us, secondly, draw conduct from the passage — an example for all young people. We have it in the conduct of our Lord Jesus Christ, when He was left by Himself in Jerusalem at the age of twelve years. For four days He was out of sight of Mary and Joseph. For three days they "sought him sorrowing," not knowing what had befallen Him. Who can imagine the anxiety of such a mother at losing such a child? And where did they find Him at last? Not idling His time away, or getting into mischief — as many boys of twelve years old do. Not in vain and unprofitable company. They found him in the temple of God — sitting in the midst of the Jewish teachers — "hearing" what they had to say, and "asking questions" about things He wished to be explained.

So ought it to be with the younger members of Christian families. They ought to be steady and trustworthy behind the backs of their parents — as well as before their faces. They ought to seek the company of the wise and prudent, and to use every opportunity of getting spiritual knowledge — before the cares of life come on them, and while their memories are fresh and strong.

Let Christian boys and girls ponder these things well, and take example from the conduct of Jesus at the age of only twelve years. Let them remember, that if they are old enough to do wrong — then they are also old enough to do right; and that if able to read story-books and to talk — then they are also able to read their Bibles and pray. Let them remember, that they are accountable to God, even while they are yet young, and that it is written that God "heard the voice of a BOY." (Genesis 21:17.)

Happy indeed are those families in which the children "seek the Lord early," and cost their parents no tears. Happy are those parents who can say of their boys and girls, when absent from them, "I can trust my children — that they will not willfully run into sin."


Let us, in the last place, draw from this passage — an example for all true Christians. We have it in the solemn words which our Lord addressed to His mother Mary, when she said to Him, "Son, why have you dealt with us thus?" "Don't you know," was the reply, "that I must be about my Father's business?" A mild reproof was evidently implied in that reply. It was meant to remind His mother — that He was no common person, and had come into the world to do no common work. It was a hint that she was insensibly forgetting that He had come into the world in no ordinary way, and that she could not expect Him to be ever dwelling quietly at Nazareth. It was a solemn remembrancer that, as God — He had a Father in Heaven, and that this heavenly Father's work demanded His first attention.

The expression is one that ought to sink down deeply into the hearts of all Christ's people. It should supply them with a mark at which they should aim in daily life — and a test by which they should try their habits and conduct. It should quicken them — when they begin to be slothful. It should check them — when they feel inclined to go back to the world.

"Are we about our Father's business? Are we walking in the steps of Jesus Christ?" Such questions will often prove very humbling, and make us ashamed of ourselves. But such questions are eminently useful to our souls. Never is a Church in so healthy a condition — as when its believing members aim high, and strive in all things to be like Christ!