Luke Chapter 1

J.C. Ryle, 1858


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Section 1. Luke's Introduction, Luke 1:1-4

Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us, Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word; It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto you in order, most excellent Theophilus, That you might know the certainty of those things, wherein you have been instructed.

The Gospel of Luke, which we now begin, contains many precious things which are not recorded in the other three Gospels. Such, for instance, are the histories of Zachariah and Elizabeth, the angel's announcement to Mary and, to speak generally, the whole contents of the first two chapters. Such, again, are the narratives of the conversion of Zaccheus and of the penitent thief the walk to Emmaus, and the famous parables of the Pharisee and Tax-collector, the rich man and Lazarus, and the Prodigal Son. These are portions of Scripture for which every well-instructed Christian feels peculiarly thankful. And for these, we are indebted to the Gospel of Luke.

The short preface which we have now read is a peculiar feature of Luke's Gospel. But we shall find, on examination, that it is full of most useful instruction.

In the first place, Luke gives us a short, but valuable, sketch of the nature of a Gospel. He calls it, "A declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us." It is a narrative of facts about Jesus Christ.

Christianity is a religion built upon facts. Let us never lose sight of this. It came unto mankind at first, in this shape. The first preachers did not go up and down the world, proclaiming an elaborate, artificial system of abstruse doctrines and deep philosophic principles. They made it their first business to tell men great plain facts. They went about telling a sin-laden world, that the Son of God had come down to earth, and lived for us, and died for us, and has risen again. The Gospel, at its first publication, was far more simple than many make it now. It was neither more nor less, than the history of Christ.

Let us aim at greater simplicity in our own personal religion. Let Christ and His Person be the sun of our system, and let the main desire of our souls be to live a life of faith in Him, and daily know Him better. This was Paul's Christianity. "To me, to live is Christ." (Philippians 1:21.)

In the second place, Luke draws a beautiful picture of the true position of the apostles in the early church. He calls them "eye-witnesses and ministers of the word."

There is an instructive humility in this expression. There is an utter absence of that man-exalting tone which has so often crept into the Church. Luke gives the apostles no flattering titles. He does not afford the slightest excuse to those who speak of them with idolatrous veneration, because of their office and nearness to our Lord.

He describes them as "eye-witnesses." They told men what they had seen with their own eyes, and heard with their own ears. (1 John 1:1.)

He describes them as "ministers of the word." They were ministers of the word of the Gospel. They were men who counted it their highest privilege to carry about, as messengers, the tidings of God's love to a sinful world, and to tell the story of the cross.

Well would it have been for the Church and the world, if Christian ministers had never laid claim to higher dignity and honor than the apostles claimed for themselves. It is a mournful fact that ordained men have constantly exalted themselves and their office to a most unscriptural position. It is a no less mournful fact that people have constantly encouraged this evil, by a lazy acceptance of the demands of priest-craft, and by contenting themselves with a mere vicarious religion. There have been faults on both sides. Let us remember this, and be on our guard.

In the third place, Luke describes his own qualifications for the work of writing a Gospel. He says that he "had perfect understanding of all things from the very first."

It would be mere waste of time to inquire from what source Luke obtained the information which he has given us in his Gospel. We have no good reason for supposing that he saw our Lord work miracles, or heard Him teach. To say that he obtained his information from Mary, or any of the apostles, is mere conjecture and speculation. It is enough for us to know that Luke wrote by inspiration of God. Unquestionably he did not neglect the ordinary means of getting knowledge. But the Holy Spirit guided him, no less than all other writers of the Bible, in his choice of matter. The Holy Spirit supplied him with thoughts, arrangement, sentences, and even words. And the result is, that what Luke wrote is not to be read as the "word of man" but the "word of God." (1 Thessalonians 2:13.)

Let us carefully hold fast the great doctrine of the plenary inspiration of every word of the Bible. Let us never allow that any writer of the Old or New Testament could make even the slightest verbal mistake or error, when, writing as he was "moved by the Holy Spirit." (2 Peter 1:21.)

Let it be a settled principle with us in reading the Bible, that when we cannot understand a passage, or reconcile it with some other passage the fault is not in the Book, but in ourselves. The adoption of this principle will place our feet upon a rock. To give it up is to stand upon a quicksand, and to fill our minds with endless uncertainties and doubts.

Finally, Luke informs us of one main object he had in view in writing his Gospel. It was that Theophilus "might know the certainty of those things wherein he had been instructed."

There is no encouragement here for those who place confidence in unwritten traditions, and the voice of the church. Luke well knew the weakness of man's memory, and the readiness with which a history alters its shape both by additions and alterations, when it depends only on word of mouth and report. What therefore does he do? He takes care to "write."

There is no encouragement here for those who are opposed to the spread of religious knowledge, and talk of "ignorance as the mother of devotion." Luke does not wish his friend to remain in doubt on any matter of his faith. He tells him that he wants him to "know the certainty of those things wherein he had been instructed."

Let us close the passage with thankfulness for the Bible. Let us bless God daily that we are not left dependent on man's traditions nor need we be led astray by ministers' mistakes. We have a written volume, which is "able to make us wise unto salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus." (2 Timothy 3:15.)

Let us begin Luke's Gospel with an earnest desire to know more ourselves of the truth as it is in Jesus, and with a hearty determination to do what in us lies to spread the knowledge of that truth throughout the world.


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Section 2. History of Zachariah and Elizabeth, and Vision of Zachariah in the Temple, Luke 1:5-12

THERE was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zachariah, of the course of Abijah: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless. And they had no child, because that Elizabeth was barren, and they both were now well stricken in years. And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course, According to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord. And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense. And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And when Zachariah saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.

The first event recorded in Luke's Gospel, is the sudden appearance of an angel to a Jewish priest named Zachariah. The angel announces to him that a son is about to be born to him, by a miraculous interposition and that this son is to be the forerunner of the long-promised Messiah. The word of God had plainly foretold that when Messiah came someone would go before him to prepare his way. (Malachi 3:1.) The wisdom of God provided that when this forerunner appeared, he would be born in the family of a priest.

We can form very little idea, at this period of the world, of the immense importance of this angel's announcement. To the mind of a pious Jew, it must have been glad tidings of great joy. It was the first communication from God to Israel since the days of Malachi. It broke the long silence of four hundred years. It told the believing Israelite that the prophetic weeks of Daniel were at length fulfilled, (Daniel 9:25) that God's choicest promise was at length going to be accomplished and that "the seed" was about to appear in whom all the nations of the earth would be blessed. (Genesis 22:18.) We must place ourselves in imagination, in the position of Zachariah in order to give the verses before us their due weight.

Let us mark, for one thing, in this passage the noble testimony which is borne to the character of Zachariah and Elizabeth. We are told that they were "both righteous before God," and that "they walked in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless."

It matters little whether we interpret this "righteousness" as that which is imputed to all believers for their justification or that which is wrought inwardly in believers by the operation of the Holy Spirit, for their sanctification. The two sorts of righteousness are never disjoined. There are none justified who are not sanctified; and there are none sanctified who are not justified. Suffice it for us to know that Zachariah and Elizabeth had grace, when grace was very rare, and kept all the burdensome observances of the ceremonial law with devout conscientiousness when few Israelites cared for them excepting in name and form.

The main thing that concerns us all, is the example which this holy pair hold up to Christians. Let us all strive to serve God faithfully, and live fully up to our light, even as they did. Let us not forget the plain words of Scripture, "He who practices righteousness, is righteous." Happy are those Christian families in which it can be reported that both husband and wife are "righteous" and exercise themselves to have a conscience void of offence toward God and toward men. (Acts 24:16.)

Let us mark, for another thing, in this passage, the heavy trial which God was pleased to lay on Zachariah and Elizabeth. We are told that they had no child. The full force of these words can hardly be understood by a modern Christian. To an ancient Jew, they would convey the idea of a very weighty affliction. To be childless, was one of the bitterest of sorrows. (1 Samuel 1:10.)

The grace of God exempts no one from trouble. As righteous as this holy priest and his wife were they had a "crook in their lot." Let us remember this, if we serve Christ and let us not count trials as strange things. Let us rather believe that a hand of perfect wisdom is measuring out all our portion, and that when God chastises us it is to make us "partakers of his holiness." (Hebrews 12:10.) If afflictions drive us nearer to Christ, the Bible, and prayer then they are positive blessings. We may not think so now. But we shall think so when we wake up in the eternal world.

Let us mark, for another thing, in this passage, the means by which God announced the coming birth of John the Baptist. We are told that an angel of the Lord appeared to Zachariah.

The ministry of angels is undoubtedly a deep subject. Nowhere in the Bible do we find such frequent mention of them, as in the period of our Lord's earthly ministry. At no time do we read of so many appearances of angels as about the time of our Lord's incarnation and entrance into the world.

The meaning of this circumstance is sufficiently clear. It was meant to teach the church that the Messiah was no angel but the Lord of angels, as well as of men. Angels announced His coming. Angels proclaimed His birth. Angels rejoiced at his appearing. And by so doing, they made it plain that He who came to die for sinners, was not one of themselves but one far above them the King of kings and Lord of lords!

One thing, at all events, about angels, we must never forget. They take a deep interest in the work of Christ, and the salvation which Christ has provided. They sang high praise when the Son of God came down to make peace by His own blood between God and man. They rejoice when sinners repent, and are born again to our Father in Heaven. They delight to minister to those who shall be heirs of salvation. Let us strive to be like them, while we are upon earth to be of their mind, and to share their joys. This is the way to be in tune for Heaven. It is written of those who enter in there that they shall be "as the angels." (Mark 12:25.)

Let us mark, lastly, in this passage, the effect which the appearance of an angel produced on the mind of Zachariah. We are told that he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.

The experience of this righteous man here, tallies exactly with that of other saints under similar circumstances. Moses at the burning bush, Daniel at the Tigris river, the women at the sepulcher, and John at the isle of Patmos all showed similar fear to that of Zachariah. Like him, when they saw visions of things belonging to another world they trembled and were afraid.

How are we to account for this fear? To that question there is only one answer. It arises from our inward sense of weakness, guilt, and corruption. The vision of an inhabitant of Heaven, reminds us forcibly of our own imperfection, and of our natural unfitness to stand before God. If angels are so great and terrible then what must the Lord of angels be?

Let us bless God, that we have a mighty Mediator between God and man the man Christ Jesus. Believing on Him, we may draw near to God with boldness, and look forward to the day of judgment without fear. When the mighty angels shall go forth to gather God's elect together the elect will have no cause to be afraid. To them the angels are fellow-servants and friends. (Revelation 22:9.)

Let us tremble when we think of the terror of the wicked at the day of judgment. If even the righteous are troubled by a sudden vision of friendly angels then what will the ungodly do, when the angels come forth to gather them like tares for the burning! The fears of the saints are groundless, and endure but for a little season. The fears of the lost, when once aroused will prove well-grounded, and will endure for evermore!

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Section 3. The Announcement of John the Baptist's Birth, and Description of His Ministry

Luke 1:13-17 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zachariah: for your prayer is heard; and your wife Elizabeth shall bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. And you shall have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.

We have, in these verses, the words of the angel who appeared to Zachariah. They are words full of deep spiritual instruction.

We learn here, for one thing that prayers are not necessarily rejected because the answer is long delayed. Zachariah, no doubt, had often prayed for the blessing of children and, to all appearance, had prayed in vain. At his advanced time of life, he had probably long ceased to mention the subject before God, and had given up all hope of being a father. Yet the very first words of the angel show plainly that the bygone prayers of Zachariah had not been forgotten, "Your prayer is heard your wife Elizabeth shall bear you a son."

We shall do well to remember this fact, whenever we kneel down to pray. We must beware of hastily concluding that our supplications are useless and especially in the matter of intercessory prayer in behalf of others. It is not for us to prescribe either the time or the manner in which our requests are to be answered. He who knows best the time for people to be born knows also the time for them to be born again. Let us rather "continue in prayer," "watch unto prayer," "pray always, and not faint."

"Delay of answer," says an old divine, "must not discourage our faith. It may be that God has long granted before we shall know of His grant."

We learn, in the second place that no children cause such true joy, as those who have the grace of God. It was a child about to be filled with the Holy Spirit, to whose father it was said, "You shall have joy and gladness and many shall rejoice at his birth."

Grace is the principal portion that we should desire for our children. It is a thousand times better for them than beauty, riches, honors, rank, or high connections. Until they have grace we never know what they may do. They may make us weary of our life, and bring down our grey hairs with sorrow to the grave! When they are converted, and not until then, they are provided for both for time and eternity. "A wise son makes a glad father." (Proverbs 10:1.) Whatever we seek for our sons and daughters let us first seek that they may have a place in the covenant, and a name in the book of life.

We learn, in the third place, the nature of true greatness. The angel describes it, when he tells Zachariah that his son "shall be great in the sight of the Lord."

The measure of greatness which is common among men is utterly false and deceptive. Princes and potentates, conquerors and leaders of armies, statesmen and philosophers, artists and authors these are the kind of men whom the world calls "great."

Such greatness is not recognized among the angels of God. Those who do great things for God they reckon great. Those who do little for God they reckon little. They measure and value every man according to the position in which he is likely to stand at the last day and through eternity.

Let us not be ashamed to make God's angels our example in this matter. Let us seek for ourselves and our children, that true greatness which will be owned and recognized in the eternal world. It is a greatness which is within the reach of all of the poor, as well as the rich of the servant, as well as of the master. It does not depend on power or patronage nor on money or friends. It is the free gift of God to all who seek it at the Lord Jesus Christ's hands. It is the portion of all who hear Christ's voice and follow Him who fight Christ's battle and do Christ's work in the world. Such may receive little honor in this life. But their reward shall be great at the last day!

We learn, in the fourth place, that children are never too young to receive the grace of God. Zachariah is informed that his son "shall be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb."

There is no greater mistake than to suppose that infants, by reason of their tender age, are incapable of being operated upon by the Holy Spirit. The manner of His work upon a little child's heart, is undoubtedly mysterious and incomprehensible. But so also are all His works upon the sons of men. Let us beware of limiting God's power and compassion. He is a merciful God. With Him nothing is impossible.

Let us remember these things in connection with the subject of infant baptism. It is a feeble objection to say that infants ought not to be baptized, because they cannot repent and believe. If an infant can be filled with the Holy Spirit, he is surely not unworthy to be admitted into the visible church.

Let us remember these things specially in the training of young children. We should always deal with them as responsible to God. We should never allow ourselves to suppose that they are too young to have any religion.

Of course we must be reasonable in our expectations. We must not look for evidences of grace, unsuitable to their age and capacities. But we must never forget that the heart which is not too young to sin is also not too young to be filled with the grace of God.

We learn, in the last place, from these verses the character of a really great and successful minister of God. The picture is set before us in a striking manner, by the angel's description of John the Baptist. He is one who will "turn hearts" turn them from ignorance, to knowledge; from carelessness, to thoughtfulness; from sin, to God. He is one who will "go before the Lord" he will delight in nothing so much as being the messenger and herald of Jesus Christ. He is one who "will make ready a people for the Lord." He will strive to gather out of the world, a company of believers who will be ready to meet the Lord in the day of His appearing.

For such ministers, let us pray night and day. They are the true pillars of a Church the true salt of the earth the true light of the world. Happy is that Church, and happy is that nation which has many such men. Without such men, learning, titles, financial endowments, and splendid buildings will keep no Church alive. Souls will not be saved good will not be done Christ will not be glorified, excepting by men full of the Holy Spirit.


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Section 4. Unbelief of Zachariah, and Consequent Punishment, Luke 1:18-25

And Zachariah said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years. And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto you, and to show you these glad tidings. And, behold, you shall be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because you Believe not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season. And the people waited for Zachariah, and marveled that he tarried so long in the temple. And when he came out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple: for he beckoned unto them, and remained speechless. And it came to pass, that, as soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished, he departed to his own house. And after those days his wife Elizabeth conceived, and hid herself five months, saying, Thus has the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men.

We see in this passage, the power of unbelief in a holy man. As righteous and holy as Zachariah was the announcement of the angel appeared unbelievable to him. He could not think it possible that an old man like himself could have a son. "How shall I know this?" he says, "for I am an old man, and my wife well along in years."

A well-instructed Jew, like Zachariah, ought not to have raised such a question. No doubt he was well acquainted with the Old Testament Scriptures. He ought to have remembered the astonishing births of Isaac, and Samson, and Samuel in old times. He ought to have remembered that what God has done once He can do again; and that with Him, nothing is impossible. But he forgot all this. He thought of nothing but the arguments of mere human reasoning. In the same way, it often happens in religious matters, that where human reasoning begins faith ends.

Let us learn in wisdom from the fault of Zachariah. It is a fault to which God's people in every age have been sadly liable. The histories of Abraham, and Isaac, and Moses, and Hezekiah, and Jehoshaphat will all show us that a true believer may sometimes be overtaken by unbelief.

Unbelief is one of the first corruptions which came into man's heart in the day of the fall, when Eve believed the devil rather than God. Unbelief is one of the most deep-rooted sins by which a saint is plagued, and from which he is never entirely freed until he dies. Let us pray daily, "Lord increase my faith!" Let us not doubt that when God says a thing that thing shall be fulfilled.

We see furthermore, in these verses the privilege and portion of God's angels. They carry messages to God's people. They enjoy God's immediate presence. The heavenly messenger who appears to Zachariah, rebukes his unbelief by telling him who he is, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God and am sent to speak unto you."

The name "Gabriel" would doubtless fill the mind of Zachariah with humiliation and self-abasement. He would remember it was that same Gabriel, who 490 years before had brought to Daniel the prophecy of the seventy weeks, and had told him how Messiah should be cut off. (Daniel 9:26.)

Zachariah would doubtless contrast his own sad unbelief, when peaceably ministering as a priest in God's temple with the faith of holy Daniel when dwelling a captive at Babylon, while the temple at Jerusalem was in ruins. Zachariah learned a lesson that day which he never forgot.

The account which Gabriel gives of his own office, should raise in our minds great searchings of heart. This mighty angel, far greater in power and intelligence than we are counts it his highest honor, to stand in God's presence and do His will.

Let our aims and desires be in the same direction. Let us strive so to live, that we may one day stand with boldness before the throne of God, and serve Him day and night in His temple.

The way to this high and holy position is open before us. Christ has consecrated it for us, by the offering of His own body and blood. May we endeavor to walk in it during the short time of this present life so that we may stand in our lot with God's elect angels in the endless ages of eternity!

We see, finally, in this passage how exceeding sinful is the sin of unbelief in the sight of God. The doubts and questionings of Zachariah brought down upon him a heavy chastisement. "You shall be mute," says the angel, "and not able to speak because you did not believe my words." It was a chastisement especially suitable to the offence. The tongue that was not ready to speak the language of believing praise was struck speechless! It was a chastisement of long continuance. For nine long months at least, Zachariah was condemned to silence and was daily reminded, that by unbelief he had offended God.

Few sins appear to be so peculiarly provoking to God, as the sin of unbelief. None certainly have called down such heavy judgments on men. It is a practical denial of God's Almighty power, to doubt whether He can do a thing when He undertakes to do it. It is giving the lie to God, to doubt whether He means to do a thing, when He has plainly promised that it shall be done. The forty years wanderings of Israel in the wilderness, should never be forgotten by professing Christians. The words of Paul are very solemn, "They could not enter in, because of unbelief!" (Hebrews 3:19.)

Let us watch and pray daily against this soul-ruining sin of unbelief. Concessions to it rob believers of their inward peace weaken their hands in the day of battle bring clouds over their hopes and make their chariot wheels drive heavily. According to the degree of our faith will be our enjoyment of Christ's salvation our patience in the day of trial and our victory over the world.

Unbelief, in short, is the true cause of a thousand spiritual diseases; and once allowed to nestle in our hearts it will eat as a canker! "If you will not believe, you shall not be established." (Isaiah 7:9.) In all that respects the pardon of our sins, and the acceptance of our souls the duties of our peculiar station and the trials of our daily life let it be a settled maxim in our religion, to trust every word of God implicitly, and to beware of unbelief.


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Section 5. The Angel's Announcement to Mary, That She Would Be the Mother of Our Lord, Luke 1:26-33

And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, you that are highly favored, the Lord is with you: blessed are you among women. And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for you have found favor with God. And, behold, you shall conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, and shall call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: And he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.

We have, in these verses, the announcement of the most marvelous event that ever happened in this world the incarnation and birth of our Lord Jesus Christ. It is a passage which we should always read with mingled wonder, love and praise.

We should notice, in the first place the lowly and unassuming manner in which the Savior of mankind came among us. The angel who announced His coming, was sent to an obscure town of Galilee, named Nazareth. The woman who was honored to be our Lord's mother, was evidently in a humble position of life. Both in her station and her dwelling-place, there was an utter absence of what the world calls "greatness."

We need not hesitate to conclude, that there was a wise providence in all this arrangement. The Almighty counsel, which orders all things in Heaven and earth could just as easily have appointed Jerusalem to be the place of Mary's residence, as Nazareth or could as easily have chosen the daughter of some rich scribe to be our Lord's mother, as a poor woman. But it seemed good that it should not be so.

The first coming of Messiah, was to be a coming in poverty and humiliation. That humiliation was to begin even from the time of His conception and birth.

Let us beware of despising poverty in others, and of being ashamed of it, if God lays it upon ourselves. The condition of life which Jesus voluntarily chose, ought always to be regarded with holy reverence.

The common tendency of the day to bow down before rich men, and make an idol of money ought to be carefully resisted and discouraged. The example of our Lord is a sufficient answer to a thousand groveling maxims about wealth, which pass current among men. "For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich yet for your sakes he became poor, so that you through his poverty might become rich." (2 Corinthians 8:9.)

Let us admire the amazing condescension of the Son of God. The Heir of all things, not only took our nature upon Him but took it in the most humbling form in which it could have been assumed. It would have been condescension to come to earth as a king and reign. It was a miracle of mercy surpassing our comprehension to come on earth as a poor man, to be despised, and suffer, and die. Let His love constrain us to live not to ourselves, but to Him. Let His example daily bring home to our conscience, the precept of Scripture, "Do not be haughty in mind, but associate with the lowly." (Romans 12:16.)

We should notice, in the second place the high privilege of Mary. The language which the angel Gabriel addresses to her is very remarkable. He calls her "highly favored." He tells her that "the Lord is with her." He says to her, "Blessed are you among women."

It is a well-known fact, that the Roman Catholic Church pays an honor to Mary, hardly inferior to that which it pays to her blessed Son. She is formally declared by the Roman Catholic Church, to have been "conceived without sin." She is held up to Roman Catholics as an object of worship, and prayed to as a mediator between God and man no less powerful than Christ Himself. For all this, be it remembered there is not the slightest warrant in Scripture. There is no warrant in the verses before us now. There is no warrant in any other part of God's word.

But while we say this, we must in fairness admit, that no woman was ever so highly honored as the mother of our Lord. It is evident that one woman only out of the countless millions of the human race, could be the means whereby God would be "manifest in the flesh" and Mary had the mighty privilege of being that one. By one woman sin and death were brought into the world at the beginning. By the child-bearing of one woman life and immortality were brought to light when Christ was born. No wonder that this one woman was called "highly favored" and "blessed."

One thing in connection with this subject should never be forgotten by Christians. There is a relationship to Christ within reach of us all a relationship far nearer than that of flesh and blood a relationship which belongs to all who repent and believe. "Whoever shall do the will of God," says Jesus, "the same is my brother, and sister, and mother."

"Blessed is the womb that bore you," was the saying of a woman one day. But what was the reply? "Yes! rather blessed are those who hear the word of God, and keep it." (Mark 3:35; Luke 11:27.)

We should notice, finally, in these verses the glorious account of our Lord Jesus Christ, which the angel gives to Mary. Every part of the account is full of deep meaning, and deserves close attention.

Jesus "shall be great" says Gabriel. Of His greatness, we know something already. He has brought in a great salvation. He has shown Himself to be a Prophet greater than Moses. He is a great High Priest. And He shall be greater still when He shall be owned as the eternal King.

Jesus "shall be called the Son of the Highest," says Gabriel. He was so before He came into the world. Equal to the Father in all things He was from all eternity the Son of God. But He was to be known and acknowledged as such by the Church. The Messiah was to be recognized and worshiped as nothing less than the true God.

"The Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of his father David," says Gabriel, "and He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever!" The literal fulfillment of this part of the promise is yet to come. Israel is yet to be gathered. The Jews are yet to be restored to their own land, and to look to Him whom they once pierced, as their King and their God. Though the accomplishment of this prediction tarry, we may confidently wait for it. It shall surely come one day, and not tarry. (Habakkuk 2:3.)

Finally, says Gabriel, "Of the kingdom of Jesus, there shall be no end." Before His glorious kingdom, the empires of this world shall one day go down and pass away. Like Nineveh, and Babylon, and Tyre, and Carthage they shall all come to nothing one day, and the saints of the most high shall take the kingdom. Before Jesus, every knee shall one day bow, and every tongue confess that He is Lord. His kingdom shall prove to be an everlasting kingdom, and His dominion shall never pass away! (Daniel 7:14, 27.)

The true Christian should often dwell on this glorious promise, and take comfort in its contents. He has no cause to be ashamed of his Master. As poor and despised as he may often be for the Gospel's sake he may feel assured that he is on the conquering side. The kingdoms of this world, shall yet become the kingdoms of Christ. In a little while He who shall come, will come, and will not tarry. (Hebrews 10:37.) For that blessed day let us patiently wait, and watch, and pray.

Now is the time for carrying the cross, and for fellowship with Christ's sufferings. The day draws near when Christ shall take His great power and reign; and when all who have served Him faithfully, shall exchange a cross for a crown!


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Section 6. Mary's Question to the Angel and His Reply, Luke 1:34-38

Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Spirit shall come upon you, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow you: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God. And, behold, your cousin Elizabeth, she has also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren. For with God nothing shall be impossible. And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to your word. And the angel departed from her.

Let us mark, in these verses the reverent and discreet manner in which the angel Gabriel speaks of the great mystery of Christ's incarnation. In reply to the question of Mary, "How shall this be?" he uses these remarkable words, "The Holy Spirit shall come upon you and the power of the Highest shall overshadow you."

We shall do well to follow the example of the angel in all our reflections on this deep subject. Let us ever regard it with holy reverence and abstain from those improper and unprofitable speculations upon it, in which some have unhappily indulged. It is enough for us to know that "the Word was made flesh," and that when the Son of God came into the world, he had a real body so that He "took part of our flesh and blood," and was "made of a woman."

Here we must stop. The manner in which all this was effected, is wisely hidden from us. If we attempt to pry beyond this point we shall only darken counsel by words without knowledge, and rush in where angels fear to tread. In a religion which really comes down from Heaven there must needs be mysteries. Of such mysteries in Christianity, the incarnation is one.


Let us mark, in the second place the prominent place assigned to the Holy Spirit in the great mystery of the incarnation. We find it written, "The Holy Spirit shall come upon you."

An intelligent reader of the Bible will probably not fail to remember that the honor here given to the Spirit, is in precise harmony with the teaching of Scripture in other places. In every step of the great work of man's redemption we shall find special mention of the work of the Holy Spirit.

Did Jesus die to make atonement for our sins? It is written that "through the eternal Spirit, He offered himself without spot to God." (Hebrews 9:14.)

Did Jesus rise again for our justification? It is written that He "was quickened by the Spirit." (1 Peter 3:18.)

Does Jesus supply His disciples with comfort between the time of His first and second coming? It is written that the Comforter, whom He promised to send is "the Spirit of truth." (John 14:17.)

Let us take heed that we give the Holy Spirit the same place in our personal religion, which we find Him occupying in God's Word.

Let us remember that all that believers have, and are, and enjoy under the Gospel they owe to the inward teaching of the Holy Spirit.

The work of each of the three Persons of the Trinity is equally and entirely needful to the salvation of every saved soul. The ELECTION of God the Father, the REDEMPTION of God the Son, and the SANCTIFICATION of God the Spirit ought never to be separated in our Christianity.


Let us mark, in the third place the mighty principle which the angel Gabriel lays down to silence all objections about the incarnation. "With God, nothing shall be impossible."

A hearty reception of this great principle is of immense importance to our own inward peace. Questions and doubts will often arise in men's minds about many subjects in religion. They are the natural result of our fallen estate of soul. Our faith at the best, is very feeble. Our knowledge at its highest, is clouded with much infirmity. And among many antidotes to a doubting, anxious, questioning state of mind few will be found more useful than that before us now a thorough conviction of the almighty power of God. With Him who called the world into being and formed it out of nothing everything is possible. Nothing is too hard for the Lord!

There is no sin too black and too wicked to be pardoned the blood of Christ cleanses from all sin. There is no heart too hard and wicked to be changed the heart of stone can be made into a heart of flesh. There is no work too hard for a believer to do we can do all things through Christ strengthening us. There is no trial too hard to be borne the grace of God is sufficient for us. There is no promise too great to be fulfilled Christ's words never pass away and what He has promised, He is able to perform. There is no difficulty too great for a believer to overcome if God is for us, then who can be against us? The mountain shall become a plain.

Let principles like these be continually before our minds. The angel's reply is an invaluable remedy. Faith never rests so calmly and peacefully as when it lays its head on the pillow of God's omnipotence!


Let us mark, in the last place, the meek and ready acquiescence of Mary to God's revealed will concerning her. She says to the angel, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord! Let it be to me according to your word."

There is far more of admirable grace in this answer than at first sight appears. A moment's reflection will show us, that it was no light matter to become the mother of our Lord in this unheard of and mysterious way. It brought with it, no doubt, great honor at a distant period; but it brought with it for the present, no small danger to Mary's reputation, and no small trial to Mary's faith. All this danger and trial, Mary was willing and ready to risk. She asks no further questions. She raises no further objections. She accepts the honor laid upon her with all its attendant perils and inconveniences. "Behold," she says, "the handmaid of the Lord."

Let us seek in our daily practical Christianity, to exercise the same blessed spirit of faith which we see here in Mary. Let us be willing to go anywhere, and do anything, and be anything whatever may be the present and immediate inconvenience so long as God's will is clear, and the path of duty is plain. The words of good Bishop Hall on this passage are worth remembering: "All disputations with God after His will is known, arise from infidelity. There is not a more noble proof of faith than bring all the powers of our understanding and will, captive to our Creator; and without any questionings, to go blindfold wherever He will lead us."


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Section 7. Mary's Visit to Elizabeth, Luke 1:39-45

And Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah; And entered into the house of Zachariah, and saluted Elizabeth. And it came to pass, that, when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit: And she spoke out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb. And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For, lo, as soon as the voice of your salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy. And blessed is she that believed: for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord.


We should observe in this passage the benefit of fellowship and communion between believers. We read of a visit paid by Mary to her cousin Elizabeth. We are told in a striking manner how the hearts of both of these holy women were cheered, and their minds lifted up by this interview. Without this visit, Elizabeth might never have been so filled with the Holy Spirit, as we are here told she was; and Mary might never have uttered that song of praise which is now known all over the Church of Christ. The words of an old divine are deep and true, "Happiness communicated, doubles itself. Grief grows greater by concealing joy grows greater by expression."

We should always regard communion with other believers as an eminent means of grace. It is a refreshing break in our journey along the narrow way, to exchange experience with our fellow travelers. It helps us insensibly, and it helps them and so it is a mutual gain. It is the nearest approach that we can make on earth, to the joy of Heaven.

"As iron sharpens iron, so does the countenance of a man his friend." We need reminding of this. The subject does not receive sufficient attention, and the souls of believers suffer in consequence. There are many who fear the Lord and think upon His name and yet forget to speak often one to another. (Malachi 3:16.)

First let us seek the face of God then let us seek the face of God's friends. If we did this more, and were more careful about the company we keep we would oftener know what it is to feel filled with the Holy Spirit.


We should observe in this passage the clear spiritual knowledge which appears in the language of Elizabeth. She uses an expression about Mary which shows that she herself was deeply taught of God. She calls her, "the mother of my Lord."

Those words "my Lord" are so familiar to our ears, that we miss the fullness of their meaning. At the time they were spoken, they implied far more than we are apt to suppose. They were nothing less than a distinct declaration that the child who was to be born of Mary was the long promised Messiah the "Lord" of whom David in spirit had prophesied the Christ of God. Viewed in this light, the expression is a wonderful example of faith. It is a confession worthy to be placed by the side of that of Peter, when he said to Jesus, "You are the Christ the Son of the living God!"

Let us remember the deep meaning of the words, "the Lord," and beware of using them lightly and carelessly. Let us consider that they rightly apply to none but Him who was crucified for our sins on Calvary. Let the recollection of this fact invest the words with a holy reverence, and make us careful how we let them fall from our lips.

There are two texts connected with the expression which should often come to our minds. In one it is written, "No man can say that Jesus is Lord but by the Holy Spirit." In the other it is written, "Every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." (1 Corinthians 12:3. Philippians 2:11.)


Finally, we should observe in these verses the high praise which Elizabeth bestows upon the grace of faith. "Blessed," she says, "is she who has believed that what the Lord has said to her, will be accomplished!" We need not wonder that this holy woman should thus commend faith. No doubt she was well acquainted with the Old Testament Scriptures. She knew the great things that faith had done in the past. The whole history of God's saints in every age is but a record of men and women who obtained a good report by faith! The simple story of all from Abel downwards is but a narrative of redeemed sinners who believed, and so were blessed. By faith they embraced promises. By faith they lived. By faith they walked. By faith they endured hardships. By faith they looked to an unseen Savior, and good things yet to come. By faith they battled with the world, the flesh, and the devil. By faith they overcame, and got safely home to Heaven.

Of this goodly company, Mary was proving herself one. No wonder that Elizabeth said, "Blessed is she who has believed that what the Lord has said to her will be accomplished!"

Do we know anything of this precious faith? This, after all, is the question which concerns us. Do we know anything of the faith of God's elect the faith which is the working of God? (Titus 1:2, Colossians 2:12.) Let us never rest until we know it by experience. Once knowing it, let us never cease to pray that our faith may grow exceedingly.

Better a thousand times be rich in faith than rich in gold. Gold will be worthless in the eternal world to which we are all traveling. Faith will be owned in that world, before God the Father and the holy angels. When the great white throne is set, and the books are opened, when the dead are called from their graves, and receiving their final sentence the value of saving faith will then be fully known! Men will learn then, if they never learned before, how true are the words, "Blessed are those who believed!"


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Section 8. Mary's Song of Praise, Luke 1:46-56

And Mary said, My soul does magnify the Lord, And my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior. For he has regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he who is mighty has done to me great things; and holy is his name. And his mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation. He has showed strength with his arm; he has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. He has put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree. He has filled the hungry with good things; and the rich he has sent empty away. He has helped his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy; As he spoke to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed forever. And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned to her own house.

These verses contain Mary's famous hymn of praise, in the prospect of becoming the "mother of our Lord." Next to the Lord's Prayer, perhaps, few passages of Scripture are better known than this. Wherever the Church of England's Prayer-book is used, this hymn forms part of the evening service. And we need not wonder that the compilers of that Prayer-book gave it so prominent a place. No words can express more aptly the praise for redeeming mercy which ought to form part of the public worship of every branch of Christ's Church.


Let us mark, firstly the full acquaintance with Scripture which this hymn exhibits. We are reminded as we read it, of many expressions in the book of Psalms. Above all, we are reminded of the song of Hannah, in first Samuel, chapter 2. It is evident that Mary's memory was stored with Scripture. She was familiar, whether by hearing or by reading with the Old Testament. And so, when out of the abundance of her heart her mouth spoke, she gave vent to her feelings in Scriptural language. Moved by the Holy Spirit to break forth into praise, she chooses language which the Holy Spirit had already consecrated and used.

Let us strive, every year we live to become more deeply acquainted with Scripture. Let us study it, search into it, dig into it, meditate on it until it dwells in us richly. (Colossians 3:16.) In particular, let us labor to make ourselves familiar with those parts of the Bible which, like the book of Psalms, describe the experience of the saints of old. We shall find it most helpful to us in all our approaches to God. It will supply us with the best and most suitable language both for the expression of our needs and thanksgivings.

Such knowledge of the Bible can doubtless never be attained without regular, daily study. But the time spent on such study is never misspent. It will bear fruit after many days.


Let us mark, secondly, in this hymn of praise Mary's deep humility. She who was chosen by God to the high honor of being Messiah's mother, speaks of her own "humble estate," and acknowledges her need of a "Savior." She does not let fall a word to show that she regarded herself as a sinless, "immaculate" person. On the contrary, she uses the language of one who has been taught by the grace of God to feel her own sins, and so far from being able to save others requires a Savior for her own soul. We may safely affirm that none would be more forward to reprove the honor paid by the Romish Church to Mary than Mary herself!

Let us copy this holy humility of our Lord's mother. Like her, let us be lowly in our own eyes, and think little of ourselves.

Humility is the highest grace that can adorn the Christian character. It is a true saying of an old divine, that "a man has just so much Christianity as he has humility." It is the grace, which of all is most suitable to human nature. Above all, it is the grace which is within the reach of every converted person. All are not rich. All are not learned. All are not highly gifted. All are not preachers. But all children of God may be clothed with humility!


Let us mark, thirdly, the lively thankfulness of Mary. It stands out prominently in all the early part of her hymn. Her "soul magnifies the Lord." Her "spirit rejoices in God." "All generations shall call her blessed." "Great things have been done for her." We can scarcely enter into the full extent of feelings which a holy Jewess would experience on finding herself in Mary's position. But we should try to recollect them as we read her repeated expressions of praise.

We too shall do well to walk in Mary's steps in this matter, and cultivate a thankful spirit. Gratefulness has ever been a mark of God's most distinguished saints in every age. David, in the Old Testament, and Paul, in the New Testament are remarkable for their thankfulness. We seldom read much of their writings, without finding them blessing and praising God.

Let us rise from our beds every morning with a deep conviction that we are debtors and that every day we have more mercies than we deserve. Let us look around us every week, as we travel through the world, and see whether we have not much to thank God for. If our hearts are in the right place then we shall never find any difficulty in building an Ebenezer a monument of thanksgiving. Well would it be if our prayers and supplications were more mingled with thanksgiving. (1 Samuel 7:12, Philippians 4:6.)


Let us mark, fourthly the experimental acquaintance with God's former dealings with His people, which Mary possessed. She speaks of God as One whose "mercy is on those who fear Him" as One who "scatters the proud, and puts down the mighty, and sends the rich empty away" as One who "exalts those of low degree, and fills the hungry with good things." She spoke, no doubt, in recollection of Old Testament history. She remembered how Israel's God had brought down Pharaoh, and the Canaanites, and the Philistines, and Sennacherib, and Haman, and Belshazzar. She remembered how He had exalted Joseph and Moses, and Samuel, and David, and Esther, and Daniel and never allowed His chosen people to be completely destroyed. And in all God's dealings with herself, in placing honor upon a poor woman of Nazareth in raising up Messiah in such a dry ground as the Jewish nation seemed to have become she traced the handiwork of Israel's covenant God.

The true Christian should always give close attention to Bible history, and the lives of individual saints. Let us often examine the "footsteps of the flock." (Song of Solomon 1:8.) Such study throws light on God's mode of dealing with His people. He is of one mind. What He does for them, and to them, in time past He is likely to do now, and in time to come. Such study will teach us what to expect, check unwarrantable expectations, and encourage us when cast down. Happy is that man whose mind is well stored with such Scripture knowledge. It will make him patient and hopeful.


Let us mark, lastly the firm grasp which Mary had of Bible promises. She ends her hymn of praise by declaring that God has "blessed Israel in remembrance of His mercy," and that He has done "as He spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and his seed forever." These words show clearly that she remembered the old promise made to Abraham, "In you shall all nations of the earth be blessed." And it is evident that in the approaching birth of her Son, she regarded this promise as about to be fulfilled.

Let us learn from this holy woman's example to lay firm hold on Bible promises. It is of the deepest importance to our peace to do so. Promises are, in fact, the manna that we should daily eat, and the water that we should daily drink as we travel through the wilderness of this world. We do not yet see all things put in subjection under us. We do not yet Christ, and Heaven, and the book of life, and the mansions prepared for us. We walk by faith, and this faith leans on promises. But on those promises we may lean confidently. They will bear all the weight we can lay on them. We shall find one day, like Mary, that God keeps His word, and that what He has spoken, so He will always in due time perform.


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Section 9. The Birth of John the Baptist, Luke 1:57-66

Now Elisabeth's full time came that she should be delivered; and she brought forth a son. And her neighbors and her cousins heard how the Lord had showed great mercy upon her; and they rejoiced with her. And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zachariah, after the name of his father. And his mother answered and said, Not so; but he shall be called John. And they said unto her, There is none of your kindred that is called by this name. And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called. And he asked for a writing table, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they marveled all. And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spoke, and praised God. And fear came on all that dwelt round about them: and all these sayings were noised abroad throughout all the hill country of Judea. And all they that heard them laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of child shall this be! And the hand of the Lord was with him.

We have in this passage the history of a birth the birth of a burning and shining light in the Church, the forerunner of Christ Himself John the Baptist. The language in which the Holy Spirit describes the event, is well worthy of remark. It is written that "The Lord showed great mercy to Elizabeth." There was mercy in bringing her safely through her time of trial. There was mercy in making her the mother of a living child. Happy are those family circles, whose births are viewed in this light as especial instances of "the mercy" of the Lord.

We see in the conduct of Elizabeth's neighbors and cousins a striking example of the kindness we owe to one another. It is written that, "They rejoiced with her." How much more happiness there would be in this evil world, if conduct like that of Elizabeth's neighbors and relations was more common!

Sympathy in one another's joys and sorrows costs little and yet is a grace of most mighty power. Like the oil on the wheels of some large engine sympathy may seem to be a trifling and unimportant thing yet in reality it has an immense influence on the comfort and well-working of the whole fabric of society. A kind word of encouragement or consolation is seldom forgotten. The heart that is chilled by affliction is peculiarly susceptible, and sympathy to such a heart is often more precious than gold.

The servant of Christ will do well to remember this grace of sympathy. It seems to be such a small thing and amid the din of controversy, and the battle about mighty doctrines, we are sadly apt to overlook it. Yet it is one of those ornaments of the Christian character which make it beautiful in the eyes of men. Let us not forget that it is enforced upon us by a special precept, "Rejoice with those who rejoice and weep with those who weep." (Romans 12:15.)

The practice of sympathy seems to bring down a special blessing. The Jews who came to comfort Mary and Martha at Bethany, aw the greatest miracle that Jesus ever worked. Above all, it is commended to us by the most perfect example. Our Lord was ready both to go to a marriage feast and to weep at a grave. (John 2, John 11) Let us be ever ready to go and do likewise.


We see in the conduct of Zachariah in this passage a striking example of the benefit of affliction. He resists the wishes of his relations to call his new-born son after his own name. He clings firmly to the name "John" which the angel Gabriel had commanded him to be called. He shows that his nine months' dumbness had not been inflicted on him in vain. He is no longer faithless, but believing. He now believes every word that Gabriel had spoken to him and every word of his message shall be obeyed.

We need not doubt that the past nine months had been a most profitable time to the soul of Zachariah. He had learned, probably, more about his own heart, and about God than he ever knew before. His conduct shows it. Correction had proved to be needful instruction. He was ashamed of his unbelief. Like Job, he could say, "I have heard of you by the hearing of the ear but now my eye sees you!" Like Hezekiah, when the Lord left him he had found out what was in his heart. (Job 42:5, 2 Chronicles 32:31.)

Let us take heed that affliction does us good just as it did to Zachariah. We cannot escape trouble in a sin-laden world. Man is born to trouble, as the sparks fly upwards. (Job 5:7.) But in the time of our trouble, let us make earnest prayer that we may "hear the rod and him who has appointed it" that we may learn wisdom by the rod, and not harden our hearts against God.

"Sanctified afflictions," says an old divine, "are spiritual promotions." The sorrow that humbles us, and drives us nearer to God is a blessing, and a downright gain. No case is more hopeless than that of the man who, in time of affliction turns his back upon God. There is a dreadful mark set against one of the kings of Judah: "In his time of trouble King Ahaz became even more unfaithful to the Lord." (2 Chronicles 28:22.)


We see in the early history of John the Baptist the nature of the blessing that we should desire for all young children. We read that "the hand of the Lord was with him."

We are not told distinctly what these words mean. We are left to gather their meaning from the promise that went before John before his birth and the life that John lived all his days. But we need not doubt that the hand of the Lord was with John to sanctify and renew his heart to teach and fit him for his office to strengthen him for all his work as the forerunner of the Lamb of God to encourage him in all his bold denunciation of men's sins and to comfort him in his last hours, when he was beheaded in prison.

We know that he was filled with the Holy Spirit from his mother's womb. We need not doubt that from his earliest years, the grace of the Holy Spirit appeared in his ways. In his boyhood as well as in his manhood the constraining power of a mighty principle from above appeared in him. That power was the "hand of the Lord."

This is the portion that we ought to seek for our children. It is the best portion, and the happiest portion. It is the only portion that can never be lost, and will endure beyond the grave. It is good to have over them, the hand of teachers and instructors; but it is better still to have "the hand of the Lord" over them.

We may be thankful if they obtain the patronage of the great and the rich. But we ought to care far more for their obtaining the favor of God. The hand of the Lord is a thousand times better, than the hand of Herod. The one is weak, foolish, and uncertain; caressing today and beheading tomorrow. The other is almighty, all-wise, and unchangeable. Where it holds it holds for evermore.

Let us bless God that the Lord never changes. What He was in John the Baptist's day He is now. What He did for the son of Zachariah He can do for our boys and girls. But He waits to be entreated. If we would have the hand of the Lord with our children we must diligently seek it.



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Section 10. Zachariah' Song, Luke 1:67-80

And his father Zachariah was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he has visited and redeemed his people, And has raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David; As he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began: That we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us; To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant; The oath which he swore to our father Abraham, That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear, In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life. And you, child, shall be called the prophet of the Highest: for you shall go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways; To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins, Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high has visited us, To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace. And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts until the day of his showing unto Israel.

Another hymn of praise demands our attention in these verses. We have read the thanksgiving of Mary the mother of our Lord. Let us now read the thanksgiving of Zachariah the father of John the Baptist. We have heard what praises the first coming of Christ drew from the Virgin of the house of David. Let us now hear what praise it draws from an aged priest.


We should notice, firstly the deep thankfulness of a Jewish believer's heart, in the prospect of Messiah's appearing. Praise is the first word that falls from the mouth of Zachariah as soon as his speechlessness is removed, and his tongue restored. He begins with the same expression with which Paul begins several of his epistles, "Blessed be the Lord!"

At this period of the world, we can hardly understand the depth of this godly man's feelings. We must imagine ourselves in his position. We must imagine ourselves seeing the fulfillment of the oldest promise in the Old Testament the promise of a Savior, and beholding the accomplishment of this promise brought near to our own door!

We must try to realize what a dim and imperfect view men had of the Gospel before Christ actually appeared, and the shadows and types passed away. Then perhaps we may have some idea of the feelings of Zachariah when he cried out, "Blessed be the Lord!"

It may be feared that Christians have very low and inadequate conceptions of their amazing privileges, in living under the full light of the Gospel. We have probably a very faint idea of the comparative dimness and darkness of the Jewish dispensation. We have a very feeble notion of what a church must have been before the incarnation of Christ. Let us open our eyes to the extent of our obligations. Let us learn from the example of Zachariah, to be more thankful.


We should notice, secondly, in this hymn of praise how much emphasis Zachariah lays on God's fulfillment of His promises. He declares that God has "visited and redeemed his people" speaking of it in the manner of the prophets as a thing already accomplished, because sure to take place. He goes on to proclaim the instrument of this redemption, "a horn of salvation" a strong Savior of the house of David. And then he adds that all this is done, "as He spoke by the mouth of His holy prophet, to perform the mercy promised, to remember His holy covenant, and the oath which He swore to our father Abraham."

It is clear that the souls of Old Testament believers fed much on God's promises. They were obliged to walk by faith, far more than we are. They knew nothing of the great facts which we know about Christ's life, and death, and resurrection. They looked forward to redemption as a thing hoped for, but not yet seen and their only warrant for their hope was God's covenanted word. Their faith may well put us to shame. So far from disparaging Old Testament believers, as some are disposed to do we ought to marvel that they were as holy as they were.

Let us learn to rest on promises and embrace them just as Zachariah did. Let us not doubt that every word of God about His people concerning things future, shall as surely be fulfilled as every word about them has been fulfilled concerning things past. Their safety is secured by promise.

The world, the flesh, and the devil shall never prevail against any believer. Their acquittal at the last day is secured by promise. They shall not come into condemnation but shall be presented spotless before the Father's throne. Their final glory is secured by divine promise. Their Savior shall come again the second time, just as surely as He came the first time to gather His saints together and to give them a crown of righteousness.

Let us be persuaded of these promises. Let us embrace them, and not let them go. They will never fail us. God's word is never broken. He is not a man, that He should lie. We have a seal on every promise, which Zachariah never saw. We have the seal of Christ's blood to assure us that what God has promised, He will surely perform.


We should notice, thirdly, in this hymn what clear views of Christ's kingdom Zachariah possessed. He speaks of being "saved and delivered from the hands of enemies" as if he had in view a temporal kingdom and a temporal deliverer from Gentile power. But he does not stop here. He declares that the kingdom of Messiah, is a kingdom in which His people are to "serve Him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before Him." This kingdom, he proclaimed, was drawing near. Prophets had long foretold that it would one day be set up. In the birth of his son John the Baptist, and the near approach of Christ Zachariah saw this kingdom close at hand.

The foundation of this kingdom of Messiah, was laid by the preaching of the Gospel. From that time, the Lord Jesus has been continually gathering out subjects from an evil world. The full completion of the kingdom, is an event yet to come. The saints of the Most High shall one day have entire dominion. The little stone of the Gospel-kingdom shall yet fill the whole earth. But whether in its incomplete or complete state the subjects of the kingdom are always of one character. They "serve God without fear." They serve God in "holiness and righteousness."

Let us give all diligence to belong to this kingdom. As small as it seems now it will be great and glorious one day. The men and women who have served God in "holiness and righteousness" shall one day see all things put under them. Every enemy shall be subdued, and they shall reign forever in that new Heaven and earth, wherein righteousness dwells.


We should notice, finally what clear views of doctrine Zachariah enjoyed. He ends his hymn of praise by addressing his infant son John the Baptist. He foretells that he shall "go before the face" of Messiah, and "give knowledge of the salvation" that He is about to bring in a salvation which is all of grace and mercy a salvation of which the leading privileges are "remission of sins," "light," and "peace."

Let us end the chapter by examining what we know of these three glorious privileges. Do we know anything of pardon? Have we turned from darkness to light? Have we tasted peace with God? These, after all, are the realities of Christianity. These are the things, without which church-membership and sacraments save no one's soul. Let us never rest until we are experimentally acquainted with them. Mercy and grace have provided them. Mercy and grace will give them to all who call on Christ's name. Let us never rest until the Spirit witnesses with our spirit that our sins are forgiven, that we have passed from darkness to light, and that we are actually walking in the narrow way, the way of peace.