Luke Chapter 23

J.C. Ryle


Section 134. Jesus before Pilate and Herod, Luke 23:1-12

And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King. And Pilate asked him, saying, Are you the King of the Jews? And he answered him and said, You say it. Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to the people, I find no fault in this man. And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place. When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the man were a Galilean. And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time. And when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him. Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing. And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused him. And Herod with his men of war set him at nothing, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate. And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together: for before they were at enmity between themselves.

Let us observe, for one thing, in this passage what false accusations were laid to our Lord Jesus Christ's charge. We are told that the Jews accused Him of "subverting the nation, forbidding to give taxes to Caesar, and stirring up the people." In all this indictment, we know, there was not a word of truth. It was nothing but a devious attempt to enlist the Roman governor against our Lord.

Lying and slander are two favorite weapons of the devil. He was a liar from the beginning, and is still the father of lies. (John 8:44.) When he finds that he cannot stop God's work his next device is to blacken the character of God's servants, and to destroy the value of their testimony.

With this weapon, he assaulted David, "False witnesses," he says, "testify against me. They accuse me of crimes I know nothing about."

With this weapon, he assaulted the prophets. Elijah was accused of being a "troubler of Israel!" Jeremiah was accused of undermining the nation, and being a traitor!

With this weapon Satan assaulted the apostles. They were "pestilent fellows," and men who "turned the world upside down."

With this weapon he assaulted our Lord all through His ministry. He stirred up his agents to call Him a glutton and a drunkard, a Samaritan and a devil! (Luke 7:34; John 8:48.)

And here, in the verses before us, we find Satan plying his old weapon to the very last. Jesus is arraigned before Pilate upon charges which are utterly untrue.

The servant of Christ must never be surprised if he has to drink of the same cup with his Lord. When He who was holy, harmless, and undefiled, was foully slandered then who can expect to escape? "If they called the master of the house Beelzebub then how much more will they call those of his household?" (Matthew 10:25.)

Nothing is too evil to slander a saint with. Perfect innocence is no fence against enormous lying, calumny, and misrepresentation. The most blameless character, will not secure us against false tongues. We must bear the trial patiently. It is part of the cross of Christ. We must sit still, lean back on God's promises, and believe that in the long run truth will prevail. "Rest in the Lord," says David, "and wait patiently for Him." "He shall bring forth your righteousness as the light, and your judgment as the noonday." (Psalm 37:6, 7.)

Let us observe, for another thing, in this passage the strange and mingled motives which influence the hearts of unconverted great men. We are told that when our Lord was sent by Pilate to Herod, king of Galilee, "Herod was greatly pleased, because for a long time he had been wanting to see Him. From what he had heard about Him, he hoped to see Him perform some miracle."

These words are remarkable. Herod was a sensual, worldly man, the murderer of John the Baptist a man living in foul adultery with his brother's wife. Such a man, we might have supposed, would have had no desire to see Christ. But Herod had an uneasy conscience. The blood of God's murdered saints, no doubt, rose often before his eyes, and destroyed his peace. The fame of our Lord's preaching and miracles had penetrated even into his court. It was said that another witness against sin had risen up, who was even more faithful and bold than John the Baptist; and who confirmed his teaching by miracles!

These rumors made Herod restless and uncomfortable. No wonder that his curiosity was stirred, and he wanted to see Christ.

It may be feared that there are many great and rich men like Herod in every age of the church men without God, without faith, and living only for themselves. They generally live in an atmosphere of their own flattered, fawned upon, and never told the truth about their souls haughty, tyrannical, and knowing no will but their own. Yet even these men are sometimes conscience-stricken and afraid.

God raises up some bold witness against their sins, whose testimony reaches their ears. At once their curiosity is stirred. They feel "found out," and are ill at ease. They flutter around his ministry, like the moth round the candle, and seem unable to keep away from it, even while they do not obey it. They praise his talents and openly profess their admiration of his power. But they never get any further.

Like Herod, their conscience produces within them a morbid curiosity to see and hear God's witnesses. But, like Herod, their heart is linked to the world by chains of iron. Tossed to and fro by storms of lust or ungovernable passions they are never at rest while they live; and after all their fitful struggles of conscience they die at length in their sins. This is a painful history. But it is the history of many rich men's souls.

Let us learn from Herod's case, to pity great men. With all their greatness and apparent splendor they are often thoroughly miserable within. Silks and satins and official robes, often cover hearts which are utter strangers to peace. That man does not understand what he is wishing for who wishes to be a rich man.

Let us pray for rich men as well as pity them. They carry a heavy weight in the race for eternal life. If they are saved, it can only be by the greatest miracles of God's grace. Our Lord's words are very solemn, "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God." (Matthew 19:24.)

Let us observe, finally, in this passage how easily and readily, unconverted men can agree in disliking Christ. We are told that when Pilate sent our Lord a prisoner to Herod, "That day Herod and Pilate became friends; before this they had been enemies." We know not the cause of their enmity. It was probably some petty quarrel, such as will arise among great as well as small. But whatever the cause of enmity it was laid aside when a common object of contempt, fear, or hatred was brought before them. Whatever else they disagreed about Pilate and Herod could agree to despise and persecute Christ.

The incident before us is a striking emblem of a state of things which may always be seen in the world. Men of the most discordant opinions can unite in opposing truth. Teachers of the most opposite doctrines can make common cause in fighting against the Gospel.

In the days of our Lord, the Pharisees and the Sadducees might be seen combining their forces to entrap Jesus of Nazareth and put Him to death.

In our own times, we sometimes see Romanists and Socinians; infidels and idolaters; worldly pleasure-lovers and bigoted moralists; the friends of so-called liberal views and the most determined opponents of all changes all ranked together against evangelical religion. One common hatred binds them together. They hate the cross of Christ!

To use the words of the apostles in the Acts, "Against your holy child Jesus, whom you have anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, are gathered together." (Acts 4:27.) All hate each other very much but all hate Christ much more!

The true Christian must not count the enmity of the world to be a strange thing. He must not marvel, if like Paul at Rome, he finds the Way of Life, a "way everywhere spoken against," and if all around him agree in disliking his religion. (Acts 28:22.) If he expects that by any concession, he can win the favor of man then he will be greatly deceived.

Let not his heart be troubled. He must only expect the praise of God. The saying of his Master should often come across his mind, "If you belonged to the world then it would love you as its own. As it is, you do not belong to the world, but I have chosen you out of the world. That is why the world hates you!" (John 15:19.)


Section 135. Crucify Him! Luke 23:13-25

And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, Said unto them, You have brought this man unto me, as one that perverts the people: and, behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof you accuse him: No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him. I will therefore chastise him, and release him. (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.) And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas: (Who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.) Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spoke again to them. But they cried, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil has he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go. And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed. And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required. And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will.

We should observe, for one thing, in this passage what striking testimony was borne to our Lord Jesus Christ's perfect innocence by His judges.

We are told that Pilate said to the Jews, "You brought me this man as one who was inciting the people to rebellion. I have examined him in your presence, and have found no basis for your charges against him. Neither has Herod for he sent him back to us; as you can see he has done nothing to deserve death." The Roman and the Galilean governors were both of one mind. Both agreed in pronouncing our Lord not guilty of the things laid to His charge.

There was a peculiar fitness in this public declaration of Christ's innocence. Our Lord, we must remember, was about to be offered up as a sacrifice for our sins. It was proper and right that those who examined Him should formally pronounce Him to be an innocent and blameless person. It was fit and right that the Lamb of God should be found by those who slew Him, to be "a Lamb without blemish and without spot." (1 Peter 1:19.) The over-ruling hand of God so ordered the events of His trial, that even when His enemies were judges they could find no fault with Him, nor prove any charge against Him.

The circumstance before us, may seem of trifling importance to a careless Bible reader. It ought however to commend itself to the heart of every well-instructed Christian. We ought to be daily thankful that our great Substitute was in all respects perfect and that our Surety was a complete and faultless Surety.

What man can count the number of his sins? We leave undone, things which we should do; and we do things which we ought not to do every day we live. But this must be our comfort, that Christ the Righteous One has undertaken to stand in our place, to pay the debt we all owe, and to fulfill the law we have all broken. He did fulfill that law completely. He satisfied all its demands. He accomplished all its requirements. He was the second Adam, who had "clean hands and a pure heart" and could therefore enter with boldness into God's holy hill. (Psalm 24:4.)

He is the righteousness of all sinners who believe in Him. (Romans 10:4.) In Him, all believers are counted perfect fulfillers of the law. The eyes of a holy God behold them in Christ clothed with Christ's perfect righteousness. For Christ's sake, God can now say of the believer, "I find no fault at all in him."

Let us learn for another thing, in this passage how thoroughly the Jews took on themselves the whole responsibility of our Lord Jesus Christ's death. We are told that when Pilate was "willing to release Jesus" the Jews kept shouting, "Crucify Him! Crucify Him!" Again, we are told that "with loud shouts they insistently demanded that He be crucified and their shouts prevailed."

This fact in the history of our Lord's passion deserves particular notice. It shows the strict accuracy of the words of the apostles in after times, when speaking of Christ's death. They speak of it as the act of the Jewish nation and not of the Romans. "You killed the Prince of life," says Peter to the Jews at Jerusalem. "You killed Him by hanging Him on a tree!" (Acts 3:15; 5:30.) "The Jews have both killed the Lord Jesus and their own prophets," says Paul to the Thessalonians. (1 Thessalonians 2:15.)

So long as the world stands, the fact before us is a memorial of man's natural hatred against God. When the Son of God came down to earth and dwelt among His own chosen people they despised Him, rejected Him, and murdered Him.

The fearful responsibility which the Jews took on themselves in the matter of our Lord's death, was not forgotten by God. The righteous blood which they shed has been crying against them as a people, for eighteen hundred years.

Scattered all over the earth, wanderers among the nations, without a land, without a government, without a home the Jews show to this day that their own words have been terribly fulfilled. The blood of their slain Messiah "is upon them and upon their children!"

They are a standing warning to the world, that it is a fearful thing to reject the Lord Christ, and that the nation which speaks stoutly against God, must not be surprised if God deals with it according to its words. Marvelous indeed is the thought that there is mercy in store for Israel, notwithstanding all its sins and unbelief! The nation which pierced and murdered Him shall yet look to Him by faith and be restored to favor. (Zechariah 12:10.)

We should observe, lastly, in this passage the remarkable circumstances connected with the release of Barabbas. We are told that Pilate "released Barabbas, the man in prison for insurrection and murder. But he delivered Jesus over to them to do as they wished."

Two people were before Pilate and he must needs release one of the two. The one was a sinner against God and man, a criminal stained with many crimes. The other was the holy, harmless, and undefiled Son of God, in whom there was no fault at all. And yet Pilate condemns the innocent prisoner and acquits the guilty! He orders Barabbas to be set free and delivers Jesus to be crucified! The circumstance before us is very instructive.

It shows the bitter malice of the Jews against our Lord. To use the words of Peter, "You disowned the Holy and Righteous One and asked that a murderer be released to you. You killed the author of life but God raised him from the dead." (Acts 3:14, 15.)

It shows the deep humiliation to which our Lord submitted, in order to procure our redemption. He allowed Himself to be reckoned lighter in the balance than a murderer, and to be counted more guilty than the chief of sinners!

But there is a deeper meaning yet beneath the circumstance before us, which we must not fail to observe. The whole transaction is a lively emblem of that wondrous exchange that takes place between Christ and the sinner, when a sinner is justified in the sight of God. "God made him who had no sin to be sin for us; so that in him we might become the righteousness of God." (2 Corinthians 5:21.) Christ the innocent, has been reckoned guilty before God that we the guilty, might be reckoned innocent, and be set free from condemnation.

If we are true Christians, let us daily lean our souls on the wondrous thought that Christ has really been our Substitute, and has been punished in our stead. Let us freely confess that, like Barabbas we deserve death, judgment, and Hell. But let us cling firmly to the glorious truth that a sinless Savior has suffered in our stead and that believing in Him, the guilty may go free.


Section 136. The Crucifixion, Luke 23:26-38

And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus. And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him. But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children. For, behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the breasts which never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry? And there were also two other, criminals, led with him to be put to death. And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the criminals, one on the right hand, and the other on the left. Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his clothing, and cast lots. And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God. And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar, And saying, If you be the king of the Jews, save yourself. And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.

We ought to notice, in this passage our Lord's words of prophetic warning. We read that He said to the women who followed Him, as He was being led away to Calvary, "Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me but weep for yourselves and for your children. For the days are coming when they will say, "Blessed indeed are the women who are childless, the wombs that have not borne a child and the breasts that have never nursed."

These words must have sounded particularly terrible to the ears of a Jewish woman. To her, it was always a disgrace to be childless. The idea of a time coming when it would be a blessing to have no children must have been a strange and fearsome thought to her mind. And yet within fifty years, this prediction of Christ was literally fulfilled!

The siege of Jerusalem by the Roman army under Titus, brought down on all the inhabitants of the city the most horrible sufferings from famine and pestilence that can be conceived. Women are reported to have actually eaten their own children during the siege for lack of food. Upon none did the last judgments sent upon the Jewish nation fall so heavily, as upon the wives, the mothers, and the little children.

Let us beware of supposing that the Lord Jesus holds out to man nothing but mercy, pardon, love, and forgiveness. Beyond all doubt, He is plenteous in mercy. His mercy is like a mighty stream. He "delights in mercy." But we must never forget that there is justice with Him as well as mercy. He is preparing punishments for the impenitent and the unbelieving. There is wrath revealed in the Gospel, for those who harden themselves in wickedness.

The same cloud which was bright to Israel was dark to the Egyptians. The same Lord Jesus who invites the laboring and heavy-laden to come to Him and rest declares most plainly that unless a man repents he will certainly perish; and that he who does not believe shall be damned. (Luke 13:3; Mark 16:16.)

The same Savior who now holds out His hands to the disobedient and rebellious will come one day "from Heaven in blazing fire with his powerful angels. He will punish those who do not know God, and do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. They will be punished with everlasting destruction, and shut out from the presence of the Lord and from the majesty of his power!" (2 Thessalonians 1:7-9.)

Let these things sink down into our hearts. Christ is indeed most gracious. But the day of grace must come to an end at last. An unbelieving world will find at length, as Jerusalem did that there is judgment with God, as well as mercy. No wrath will fall so heavily as that which has been long accumulating and storing up.

We ought to notice, for another thing, in this passage our Lord's words of gracious intercession. We read that when He was crucified, His first words were, "Father, forgive them for they do not know what they are doing." His own racking agony of body, did not make Him forget others. The first of His seven sayings on the cross was a prayer for the souls of His murderers!

He had just exhibited His prophetic office by a remarkable prediction. He was about to exhibit His kingly office soon by opening the door of paradise to the penitent thief. His priestly office He now exhibited by interceding for those who crucified Him. "Father," He said, "forgive them!"

The fruits of this wonderful prayer will never be fully seen, until the day when the books are opened, and the secrets of all hearts are revealed. We have probably not the least idea how many of the conversions at Jerusalem, which took place during the first six months after the crucifixion were the direct reply to this marvelous prayer.

Perhaps this prayer was the first step towards the penitent thief's repentance. Perhaps it was one means of affecting the centurion, who declared our Lord to be "a righteous man" and the people who "returned home, beating their breasts." Perhaps the three thousand converted on the day of Pentecost, were among our Lord's murderers and owed their conversion to this very prayer.

The day will manifest it. There is nothing secret, which shall not be revealed. This alone we know, that "the Father always hears the Son." (John 11:42.) We may be sure that this wondrous prayer was indeed heard.

Let us see in our Lord's intercession for those who crucified Him one more proof of Christ's infinite love to sinners. The Lord Jesus is indeed most pitiful, most compassionate, and most gracious. None are too wicked, for Him to care for. None are too far gone in sin, for his almighty heart to take interest about their souls. He wept over unbelieving Jerusalem. He heard the prayer of the dying thief. He stopped under the tree to call the tax-collector Zaccheus. He came down from Heaven to turn the heart of the persecutor Saul. He found time to pray for His murderers, even on the cross.

Love like this is a love which surpasses knowledge. The vilest of sinners, have no cause to be afraid of applying to a Savior like this. If we desire warrant and encouragement to repent and believe the passage before us surely supplies enough.

Finally, let us see in our Lord's intercession a striking example of the spirit which should reign in the hearts of all His people. Like Him, let us return good for evil, and blessing for cursing. Like Him, let us pray for those who do evil against us and persecute us. The pride of our hearts may often rebel against the idea. The proud world may call it foolish to behave in such a way. But let us never be ashamed to imitate our divine Master. The man who prays for his enemies, shows the mind that was in Christ and will have his reward.


Section 137. The Dying Thief, Luke 23:39-43

And one of the criminals which were hanged railed on him, saying, If you be Christ, save yourself and us. But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Do not you fear God, seeing you are in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man has done nothing amiss. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when you come into your kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Truly I say unto you, To day shall you be with me in paradise.

The verses we have now read deserve to be printed in letters of gold. They have probably been the salvation of myriads of souls. Multitudes will thank God to all eternity that the Bible contains this story of the penitent thief.

We see, firstly, in the history before us the sovereignty of God in saving sinners. We are told that two criminals were crucified together with our Lord, one on His right hand and the other on His left. Both were equally near to Christ. Both saw and heard all that happened during the six hours that He hung on the cross. Both were dying men, and suffering acute pain. Both were alike wicked sinners, and needed forgiveness. Yet one died in his sins, as he had lived, hardened, impenitent, and unbelieving. The other repented, believed, cried to Jesus for mercy, and was saved.

A fact like this should teach us humility. We cannot account for it. We can only say, "Even so, Father, for so it seems good in your sight." (Matthew 11:26.) How it is that under precisely the same circumstances, one man is converted and another remains dead in sins? Why is it that the very same sermon is heard by one man with complete indifference and another man goes home to pray and seek Christ? Why is it that the same Gospel is hidden from one and revealed to another? All these are questions which we cannot possibly answer. We only know that it is so, and that it is useless to deny it.

Our own duty is clear and plain. We are to make a diligent use of all the means which God has appointed for the good of souls. There is no necessity that anyone should be lost. There is no such a thing as decreed damnation in the Bible. The offers of the Gospel are wide, free and general. God's sovereignty was never meant to destroy man's responsibility. One thief was saved that no sinner might despair. But only one was saved that no sinner might presume.

We see secondly in this history the unvarying character of repentance unto salvation. This is a point in the penitent thief's story, which is fearfully overlooked. Thousands look at the broad fact that he was saved in the hour of death, and look no further. They do not look at the distinct and well-defined evidences of repentance which fell from his lips before he died. Those evidences deserve our closest attention.

The first notable step in the thief's repentance, was his concern about his companion's wickedness in reviling Christ. "Do you not fear God," he said, "seeing that you are under the same sentence of condemnation."

The second step was a full acknowledgment of his own sin. "We are punished justly for we are getting what our deeds deserve."

The third step was an open confession of Christ's innocence. "This man has done nothing wrong."

The fourth step was faith in Jesus Christ's power and will to save him. He turned to a crucified sufferer, and called Him "Lord" and declared his belief that He had a kingdom.

The fifth step was prayer. He cried to Jesus when he was hanging on the cross and asked Him even then, to think upon his soul.

The sixth and last step was humility. He begged to be "remembered" by our Lord. He mentions no great thing which he had previously done. Enough for him, if he is remembered by Christ.

These six points should always be remembered in connection with the penitent thief. His time was very short for giving proof of his conversion. But it was time well used. Few dying people have ever left behind them such good evidences, as were left by this dying thief.

Let us beware of a repentance without evidences. Thousands, it may be feared, are every year going out of the world with a lie in their right hand! They imagine that they will be saved, because the thief was saved in the hour of death. They forget that if they would be saved as he was they must repent as he repented.

The shorter a man's time is the better must be the use he makes of it. The nearer he is to death, when he first begins to think the clearer must be the evidence which he leaves behind. Nothing, it may be safely laid down as a general rule nothing should be so little relied upon, as a death-bed repentance.

We see, thirdly, in this history the amazing power and willingness of Christ to save sinners. It is written that He is "able to save to the uttermost." (Hebrews 7:25.) If we search the Bible through, from Genesis to Revelation we shall never find a more striking proof of Christ's power and mercy, than the salvation of the penitent thief.

The time when the thief was saved was the hour of our Lord's greatest weakness. He was hanging in agony on the cross. Yet even then, He heard and granted a sinner's petition, and opened to him the gate of life. Surely this was "power!"

The man whom our Lord saved was a wicked sinner at the point of death, with nothing good in his past life to recommend him, and nothing notable in his present position, but a humble prayer. Yet even he was plucked like a brand from the burning! Surely this was "mercy."

Do we want proof that salvation is of grace, and not of works? We have it in the case before us. The dying thief was nailed hand and foot to the cross. He could do literally nothing for his own soul. Yet even he, through Christ's infinite grace, was saved. No one ever received such a strong assurance of his own forgiveness, as this man.

Do we want proof that sacraments and ordinances are not absolutely needful to salvation, and that men may be saved without them when they cannot be had? We have it in the case before us. The dying thief was never baptized. He never belonged to a visible church, and never received the Lord's supper. But he repented and believed and therefore he was saved.

Let these things sink down into our hearts. Christ never changes. The way of salvation, is always one and the same. He lives, who saved the penitent thief. There is hope for the vilest sinner if he will only repent and believe.

We see, lastly, in the history before us how near a dying believer is to eternal rest and glory. We read that our Lord said to the criminal in reply to his prayer, "Today you shall be with Me in paradise!"

That word "today" contains a body of divinity. It tells us that the very moment a believer dies his soul is in happiness and in safe keeping.

His full redemption is not yet come. His perfect bliss will not begin before the resurrection morning. But there is no mysterious delay, no season of suspense, no purgatory between his death and a state of glory. In the day that he breathes his last he goes to Paradise. In the hour that he departs he is with Christ in glory. (Philippians 1:23.)

Let us remember these things, when our believing friends fall asleep in Christ. We must not sorrow for them as those who have no hope. While we are sorrowing they are rejoicing. While we are mourning and weeping at their funerals they are safe and happy with their Lord.

Above all, let us remember these things, if we are true Christians in looking forward to our own deaths. To die is a solemn thing. But if we die in the Lord then we need not doubt that our death will be eternal gain!


Section 138. Jesus' Death, Luke 23:44-49

And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into your hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the Spirit. Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man. And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned. And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.

Let us observe in these verses the miraculous signs which accompanied our Lord's death on the cross. We are told that there was "a darkness over all the earth" for three hours. "The sun was darkened, and the curtain of the temple was torn in two."

It was proper and right that the attention of all around Jerusalem should be arrested in a marked way when the great sacrifice for sin was being offered, and the Son of God was dying! There were signs and wonders wrought in the sight of all Israel when the law was given on Sinai. There were signs and wonders in like manner when the atoning blood of Christ was shed on Calvary.

There was a sign for an unbelieving world. The darkness at mid-day was a miracle which would compel men to think.

There was a sign for the Jewish Church and the ministers of the temple. The tearing of the curtain which hung between the holy place and the holy of holies was a miracle which would strike awe into the heart of every priest and Levite.

Signs like these, on special occasions, let us remember are a part of God's ways in dealing with man. He knows the desperate stupidity and unbelief of human nature. He sees that it is necessary to arouse our attention by miraculous works, when He brings in a new dispensation. He thus compels men to open their eyes whether they will or not, and to hear His voice for a little season.

He has done so frequently in the days that are past. He did so when He gave the law. He did so in the passage before us when He brought in the Gospel.

He will do so once more when Christ comes again the second time. He will show a sneering, unbelieving world that He can suspend the laws of nature at His pleasure, and alter the framework of creation as easily as He called the earth into being. He will yet fulfill His words, "Yet once more I will shake not the earth only, but also the heavens." "Then the glory of the moon will wane, and the brightness of the sun will fade, for the LORD Almighty will rule on Mount Zion. He will rule in great glory in Jerusalem." (Hebrews 12:26; Isaiah 24:23.)

Let us observe, secondly, in these verses the remarkable words which our Lord spoke when He died. We read that "Jesus cried with a loud voice: Father, into your hands I commend my spirit!"

There is a depth of meaning, no doubt, in these words which we have no line to fathom. There was something mysterious about our Lord's death, which made it unlike the death of any mere man. He who spoke the words before us, we must carefully remember was God as well as man. His divine and human nature were inseparably united. His divine nature of course could not die. He says Himself, "I lay down my life, that I might take it again. No man takes it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down and I have power to take it again." (John 10:17, 18.)

Christ died not as we die, when our hour has come not because He was compelled and could not help dying but voluntarily, and of His own free will.

There is a sense, however, in which our Lord's words supply a lesson to all true Christians. They show us the manner in which death should be met by all God's children. They afford an example which every believer should strive to follow. Like our Master, we should not be afraid to confront the king of terrors. We should regard him as a vanquished enemy, whose sting has been taken away by Christ's death. We should think of him as a foe who can hurt the body for a little season but after that has no more that he can do. We should await his approaches with calmness and patience, and believe that when our flesh fails our soul will be in good keeping.

This was the mind of dying Stephen, "Lord Jesus," he said, "receive my spirit." This was the mind of Paul the aged, when the time of his departure was at hand. He says, "I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that He is able to keep that which I have committed to him against that day." (Acts 7:59; 2 Timothy 1:12.) Happy indeed are those who have a last end like this!

Let us observe, lastly, in these verses the power of conscience in the case of the centurion and the people who saw Christ die. We are told that the centurion "praised God, saying: Certainly this was a righteous man." We are told that the people who had come together to the sight, "smote their breasts and went away."

We do not exactly know the nature of the feelings here described. We do not know the extent to which they went, or the after-fruit which they brought forth. One thing, at all events, is clear. The Roman officer felt convinced that he had been part of an unrighteous action crucifying an innocent person.

The gazing crowd were pierced to the heart by a sense of having aided, approved, and abetted a grievous wrong. Both Jew and Gentile left Calvary that evening heavy-hearted, self-condemned, and ill at ease.

Great indeed is the power of conscience! Mighty is the influence which it is able to exercise on the hearts of men! It can strike terror into the minds of monarchs on their thrones. It can make multitudes tremble and shake before a few bold friends of truth, like a flock of sheep. Blind and mistaken as conscience often is, unable to convert man or lead him to Christ it is still a most blessed part of man's constitution, and the best friend in the congregation that the preacher of the Gospel has. No wonder that Paul says, "By plainly setting forth the truth, we commend ourselves to every man's conscience." (2 Corinthians 4:2.)

He who desires inward peace, must beware of quarreling with his conscience. Let him rather use it well, guard it jealously, hear what it has to say, and treat it as his friend. Above all, let him pray daily that his conscience may be enlightened by the Holy Spirit, and cleansed by the blood of Christ. The words of John are very significant, "If our heart does not condemn us then have we confidence toward God." (1 John 3:21.) That man is doing well who can say, "I always strive to have a conscience void of offence toward God and toward man." (Acts 24:16.)


Section 139. Jesus' Burial, Luke 23:50-56

And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counselor; and he was a good man, and a just: (The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Arimathea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God. This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulcher that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid. And that day was the preparation, and the Sabbath drew on. And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulcher, and how his body was laid. And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the Sabbath day according to the commandment.

We see from these verses that Christ has some disciples of whom little is known. We are told of one Joseph, "a good and just man" a man who "had not consented to the counsel" of those who condemned our Lord a man who "himself waited for the kingdom of God. This man went boldly to Pilate after the crucifixion asked for the body of Jesus, took it down from the cross, and laid it in a tomb.

We know nothing of Joseph except what is here told us. In no part of the Acts or Epistles, do we find any mention of his name. At no former period of our Lord's ministry, does he ever come forward. We cannot explain his reason for not openly joining the disciples before this time. But here, at the eleventh hour, this man is not afraid to show himself to be one of our Lord's friends.

At the very time when the apostles had forsaken Jesus Joseph is not ashamed to show his love and respect. Others had confessed Him while He was living and doing miracles. It was reserved for Joseph to confess Him when He was dead.

The history of Joseph is full of instruction and encouragement. It shows us that Christ has friends of whom the Church knows little or nothing unknown friends who in real love and affection, are second to none.

It shows us, above all, that events may bring out grace in quarters where at present we do not expect it; and that the cause of Christ may prove one day to have many supporters, of whose existence we are at present not aware. These are they whom David calls "hidden ones" and Solomon compares to a "lily among thorns." (Psalm 83:3; Canticles 2:2.)

Let us learn from the case of Joseph of Arimathea, to be charitable and hopeful in our judgments. All is not barren in this world when our eyes perhaps see nothing. There may be some latent sparks of light when all appears dark. Little plants of spiritual life may be existing in some remote congregations, which the Father Himself has planted. Grains of true faith may be lying hidden in some neglected English parish, which have been placed there by God. There were seven thousand true worshipers in Israel of whom Elijah knew nothing. The day of judgment will bring forward men who seemed last and place them among the first! (1 Kings 19:18.)

We see secondly, from these verses the reality of Christ's death. This is a fact which is placed beyond dispute, by the circumstances related about His burial. Those who took His body from the cross and wrapped it in linen, could not have been deceived. Their own senses must have been witnesses to the fact, that He whom they handled was a corpse. Their own hands and eyes must have told them, that He whom they laid in Joseph's sepulcher was not alive, but dead.

The importance of the fact before us is far greater than a careless reader supposes. If Christ did not really die, there would be an end of all the comfort of the Gospel. Nothing short of His death could have paid man's sin-debt to God. His incarnation, and sermons, and parables, and miracles, and sinless obedience to the law would have availed nothing, if He had not died.

The penalty threatened to the first Adam, was eternal damnation in Hell. If the second Adam had not really and actually died in our stead, as well as taught us truth the original penalty would have continued in full force against Adam and all his posterity. It was the life-blood of Christ, which was to save our souls.

Forever let us bless God that our great Redeemer's death is a fact beyond all dispute. The centurion who stood by the cross, the friends who took out the nails and laid the body in the grave, the women who stood by and beheld, the priests who sealed up the grave, the soldiers who guarded the sepulcher all, all are witnesses that Jesus actually was dead.

The great sacrifice was really offered. The life of the Lamb was actually taken away. The penalty due to sin has actually been discharged by our Divine Substitute. Sinners believing in Jesus may hope and not be afraid. In themselves they are guilty. But Christ has died for the ungodly; and their debt is now completely paid.